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  (Source: BusinessWeek)

Researchers at Brown University have successfully assembled "microtissue" subunits -- clumps of cells -- into complex tissue patterns seen here, by using a Jell-O like mold. Growing artificial tissues could end drug testing on animals and could essentially allow for human immortality.  (Source: Morgan Lab/Brown University)
New research could reduce the need to test new drugs on animals

The area of artificial tissues is a fascinating field of research.  From artificial blood vessels to synthetically grown muscles and cartilage, we're close to being able to grow the components to rejuvenate our bodies and advance research. 

Two key benefits from artificial tissues are the ability to offer replacements to aging or damaged tissue and the ability to test the effects of drugs and chemicals ethically without having to resort to less accurate tests on animals, or expensive tests on humans.  Such advances could eventually enable bioaugmentation and regrown limbs.

However, one dilemma is how to grow the complex shapes found in many living tissues.  Brown University biomedical engineers think they have found an answer.

The engineers invented a 3D Petri dish which they use to grow small clusters of cells of the target tissue type.  They have successfully assembled the cells into complex patterns, like honeycombs or donuts.  Assembly of clusters of different kinds of cells, as is typical in most organs, should also be possible.

Brown professor Jeffrey Morgan, who led the team, says the progress is a critical breakthrough with big implications for the fields of basic cell biology, drug discovery, and tissue research.  His team has succeeded in producing laced patterns resembling vasculature, meaning that a tissue with artificial blood vessels woven into it may be a possibility for the first time.

Professor Morgan's work was funded by the National Science Foundation and the International Foundation for Ethical Research (IFER).  IFER funded the research as it believes that artificial tissue research will help eliminate the use of animals in dangerous medical testing. 

Professor Morgan describes the work stating, "There is a need for … tissue models that more closely mimic natural tissue already inside the body in terms of function and architecture.  This shows we can control the size, shape and position of cells within these 3-D structures.  We think this is one step toward using building blocks to build complex-shaped tissues that might one day be transplanted."

The new work builds on previous research by the team in which they created the Petri dish made of agarose, a complex carbohydrate derived from seaweed.  During the previous work in 2007, the team created the dish, which has a consistency similar to Jell-O.  They then grew a cluster of cells in the dish, called "microtissues", but did not take the next step to assemble them into tissue-like patterns, which they did in this study.

In the recent study, the researchers used these blocks, placing them in more complex, larger agarose molds to create complicated patterns.  The microtissue then grew together, forming complex living patterns. 

Graduate students Adam Rago and Dylan Dean helped lead the study.  By aging the microtissue clusters, the students found they could control how tightly the cells adhered to the other microtissues in the mold.  The longer they let the cells age, the slower they fused.

The new study will be published in the March 1 issue of Biotechnology and Bioengineering and is currently available online.



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What flavors...
By MrBlastman on 2/3/2009 1:38:53 PM , Rating: 2
Do they come in? That's my only question. ;)

Okay, now in all seriousness - pretty neat stuff. What I'd be curious to know is how large can they grow/mold these structures to be? Would it be possible to allow them to reach the size of an organ. Currently, we take an organ, or part of one, wash away all the DNA and genetic material leaving essentially a scaffolding, and allow cellular divison to fill it back in with living tissue.

If we remove that step, we might indeed be closer to growing functional units using a simple mold. However, I fear this technology for now will only allow smaller structures which, could be used for testing. That isn't such a bad thing in itself really.




RE: What flavors...
By akosixiv on 2/3/2009 1:47:48 PM , Rating: 2
its basically a good step forward for them. Possibly leading the way into building even bigger structures.

Imagine growing another lung to replace one which has been ravaged by disease or pollution.


RE: What flavors...
By Smartless on 2/3/2009 1:50:01 PM , Rating: 2
Yeah I was kinda thinking it looked like the Honeycombs cereal.

Promising technology, hopefully other breakthroughs in stem cell research could make this possible....

And maybe Episode 172 of Southpark will be a reality. Eww..


RE: What flavors...
By KITH on 2/3/2009 2:42:11 PM , Rating: 2
You're breaking my balls...


RE: What flavors...
By amanojaku on 2/3/2009 9:39:11 PM , Rating: 3
Now you can grow new ones. :-)


a bit much
By Biodude on 2/4/2009 10:02:47 AM , Rating: 4
quote:
and could essentially allow for human immortality.
That's a bit of a stretch isn't it? Even if you could produce abundant, high quality, rejection-free organs, that's still a long long way from immortality. Brain transplants would be easier than piecemeal/total body replacement, I should hazard a guess, and you'd still have to deal with the aging of the brain itself. A lofty goal to be sure, but this isn't going to accomplish it.




RE: a bit much
By JonnyDough on 2/5/2009 9:50:27 AM , Rating: 3
I was thinking the same thing. Besides, death is a gift/blessing what have you. Human immortality would be great as long I'm the only one who lives forever. As long as we can't manage our reproduction, we won't all be able to live forever. So the question then is, who gets to live forever? The rich and powerful? There simply are not enough resources in the universe to sustain an infinite number of human beings. Besides, if immortality was possible, we would all become like Gods and we'd already be everywhere through out space. We would have solved our problems by now. The universe knows no time. How do I know that true human immortality will never happen? Because it hasn't.


J-E-L-L-O
By dflynchimp on 2/3/2009 2:42:58 PM , Rating: 2
It's aliiiiiive!




RE: J-E-L-L-O
By captchaos2 on 2/3/2009 4:53:41 PM , Rating: 2
So that means they can keep Bill Cosby alive forever?


Tasty
By icanhascpu on 2/3/2009 4:03:57 PM , Rating: 2
Lime flavored people!




Post-surgical procedures
By zinfamous on 2/3/2009 4:26:36 PM , Rating: 2
I imagine, and hope, breakthroughs like this would lead to the elimination of such post-surgical procedures like colostomies and other life-altering permanent solutions.

Rather than compensate for a few inches of surgically removed rectum, just grow some more tissue.




A pair of arms
By axias41 on 2/3/2009 5:11:43 PM , Rating: 2
Just yesterday I was looking for a pair of arms to add to my body...




New approach to old tech?
By Giant Panda on 2/3/2009 11:53:16 PM , Rating: 2
Although this is really cool, and I have never seen this particular approach, tech similar to this has been around for awhile. That mouse in the south park episode mentioned earlier, the one with the ear on it and not the one with the penis, is in fact real. Scientists grew an ear on the back of a mouse using cloned cells and a biodegradable scaffold, and then implanted it into some girl. Thetre is more on this here: http://www.pbs.org/saf/1107/features/body.htm. This seems to skip the mouse step, but the principal is the same.




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