backtop


Print 72 comment(s) - last by vailr.. on Oct 1 at 2:23 AM


Guy Kawasaki  (Source: guykawasaki.com)
Guy Kawasaki takes Apple to task for not going with micro USB

Apple's Lightning dock connector has been catching a lot of static since it was officially announced alongside the iPhone 5. On the plus side, the Lightning connector is much smaller than the older 30-pin connector, which allows Apple to cram more components inside the iPhone 5 while making it smaller and lighter. And unlike the older 30-pin connector, the connector is reversible, making it easier to plug in the cable on the first try.
 
However, there are plenty of negatives associated with the move to Lightning. Older dock-based accessories and cables won't work without a $29 adapter and some in-car infotainment systems won't function properly even with an adapter.
 
Now, Guy Kawasaki, who worked as Apple’s software/hardware “evangelist” from 1983 to 1987, is calling out the company on its decision to go forward with Lightning. Kawasaki doesn't take issue with the elimination of the 30-pin dock connector, but he does take object to Apple not going with the industry standard micro USB connector that all other smartphone makers use.
 
"This connector thing, I think it's pure arrogance," said Kawasaki. "Well, if the goal was really to save space why didn't you just go to a micro USB like everybody else in the world, and we could all get a cable at 7-11 for $5.


Apple's $29 Lightning adapter
 
"But no, you had to have a proprietary one. It fries my brain, I don't understand it. It's just arrogance and I'm disappointed very much in that."
 
To add insult to injury, the former Apple evangelist doesn't even own an iPhone anymore. "I got rid of my iPhone about a year ago - I prefer Android," Kawasaki added.

Source: The Daily Telegraph



Comments     Threshold


This article is over a month old, voting and posting comments is disabled

No excuses
By quiksilvr on 9/24/2012 12:14:04 PM , Rating: 5
This company makes tens of billions of dollars. If it honestly was speed, why didn't they get micro-USB 3.0? That would have been incredible and it would have pushed iPhone ahead of the competition. Faster speeds. Faster access times. Future proof. That is easily marketable and this is just greed and arrogance to the nth degree.

It may have been easier to swallow if the adapter was $10 but this is just extortion and hopefully will have legal ramifications in the EU.




RE: No excuses
By someguy123 on 9/24/2012 6:19:26 PM , Rating: 5
Apple's only selling point is that it's apple. Being "different" is all they have going for them. These days other companies are right there in hardware, so I suppose they thought it was time to get rid of fully featured maps and dodge usb to maintain their uniqueness regardless of how it affected the customer. I'm actually surprised that they haven't marketed how sleek and clutter free their empty maps are.

I've had untold amounts of people asking me if I preordered the iphone 5, and whenever I asked them why I would shell out for such a thing the answer would ultimately devolve into the fact that it was a new iphone. Not speed, not battery life, it's a NEW! iphone. When it comes to apples customers I'd argue that the new connector just adds to the appeal, even if the rest of us see it as a nonsensically overpriced and arbitrary decision.


RE: No excuses
By Tony Swash on 9/24/12, Rating: 0
RE: No excuses
By Trisped on 9/24/2012 7:24:02 PM , Rating: 5
Fantasy world again Tony. If micro-USB was not rated to handle it they could have used mini-USB like all the other stuff I have. The fact is that you can get plenty of power over a USB cable, otherwise Apple would not be able to sell their products with USB chargers.

What it actually comes down to is Apple does not want people paying $5 for a power adapter, they want people paying $15-20 and a 30% cut.
They want people to buy the $30 adapter because it is 70-99% profit.
They want people to buy new iPod alarm clocks, base stations, cars, etc. because Apple gets a cut.

The real fact is Apple cannot be like everyone else, because they charge more then everyone else.


RE: No excuses
By jimbojimbo on 9/24/2012 11:44:52 PM , Rating: 2
My micro USB adapter puts out 2.1 amps... hmm, I guess my charger, the cables I've used, and my tablets should be fried by now. Strange how they aren't.


RE: No excuses
By testerguy on 9/25/2012 2:27:18 AM , Rating: 2
At what voltage?


RE: No excuses
By Trisped on 9/27/2012 7:27:55 PM , Rating: 2
USB is 5v (well there are 4 wires, one is ground, 2 for data, and one for +5v power).
Since all USB is +5v then it is usually not mentioned.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Universal_Serial_Bus


RE: No excuses
By Strunf on 9/25/2012 8:02:26 AM , Rating: 2
2.1A is the maximum current output, if your device only needs 500mA your USB adapter will only supply 500mA.


RE: No excuses
By Alexstarfire on 9/25/2012 3:22:30 AM , Rating: 3
Where did you get that information? The only thing I can find for USB 3 is for the full version and it's speculated to supply 100w of power. I'm sure the micro-USB 3 would be less, but less than 1/11th of the power seems a bit of a stretch.

And IDK what the ratings for micro-USB 2 are but I'm assuming it's less than than micro-USB 3 and I imagine what you quoted is about right.


RE: No excuses
By MADAOO7 on 9/24/2012 7:07:49 PM , Rating: 2
Wrong use of the term extortion. Extortion would imply you have no choice. You always have the choice to choose your phone.


RE: No excuses
By Belard on 9/24/2012 7:14:44 PM , Rating: 1
While I have become an Apple hater because of their stupid lawsuits... the Lighting connector is a GOOD idea.

I've had a chance to use it a bit, no thought required.

A friend needed to charge her phone on my handy USB cable (we are all Android) I wasn't too familer with her Android phone, but it took about 3+ seconds to LOOK at the connector and the slot on the phones to see which end is up.

I'll give Apple credit for making a better USB2.0+ cable (3.0 support coming sometime in the future), nothing more.


RE: No excuses
By michael2k on 9/24/2012 7:36:18 PM , Rating: 1
micro USB 3 is twice as wide as Lightning, ergo any evaluation would lean towards Lightning as the smaller and more reliable connector.

The Lightning connector is definitely more future proof than USB2 given that it has 4x as many pins, and it's possibly even already USB3 compatible given USB3 has only 4 data pins + the 2 for USB.


By keithhat on 9/26/2012 3:49:48 PM , Rating: 2
Many of these negative comments are puzzling. I like the new connector, unlike my old 30pin or Micro USB. Both require me to be 100% sure I am plugging it in the right way by looking for the marking or in the case of Micro USB the flat or curved side. I interact with lots of "normal" users who have a 50/50 shot of getting it right without looking. I see many of them get it wrong, retry, damage connectors, etc. As was also posted this new connector will be the basis for new I/O options. It is rough right now because it is new and you can't buy a charging cable at every Airport or 7-11, but that will change. I purchased an extra cable problem solved. Apple also has the adaptor for Micro USB to Lightning if you really want it.




By Azethoth on 9/29/2012 12:28:10 AM , Rating: 2
I agree. Micro usb sucks coconuts. I hate every single micro-usb device I have because it takes 10 seconds to jam the stupid plug into the device because the makers are too retarded to fix its ergonomics.

Maybe if they fixed that I would like it. Otherwise, gimme whatever Apple wants me to have. My iPad attaches 1st try by touch without even seeing the hole. The 30 pin is fantastic. From the shape of it the lightning looks like it will be even easier to use.


By alcalde on 9/30/2012 2:05:19 PM , Rating: 2
Apple users even find plugging in a cable too hard now and need Apple to simplify it for them? How do you people live in a world of polarized plugs? Or house keys, for that matter?


Considering how Apple sees itself...
By bupkus on 9/24/2012 4:10:07 PM , Rating: 3
I can see that this new socket was seen by them as justifiable.

Now, temporarily suspending suspicion, I'm going to go on the assumption that this new socket wasn't Apple's intent just to glean a few more bucks from their followers.

Does this socket provide any advantage over micro-usb? I use micro-usb on my Nexus 7 and my hp touchpad and I'm not thrilled with its use. If the room is dark I can't tell which side is up and when I go to unplug it I'm extra careful cause it feels like it won't come loose; it feels like I'm gonna break it if I pull harder.

If the Apple solution came first and was currently ubiquitous I probably would prefer it if for no other reason than it inserts on either side.




Dont see the big deal...
By kmmatney on 9/24/2012 12:54:59 PM , Rating: 3
Apple's old connector was proprietary as well, and you can buy those online for $3 shipped. It's just a matter of time before you can get the new cables/adapters cheap as well. Looks like a big improvement over the old connector. I can't say that MicroUSB is that great - we have to jiggle the connection on my wife's phone to make it work. The AC-to-USB adapter also stopped working on her Android phone, so I replaced it with an old Apple one I had. For Audio, I just use Bluetooth.




RE: Dont see the big deal...
By EnzoFX on 9/24/12, Rating: -1
Must buy premium cables?
By BillyBatson on 9/27/2012 1:54:53 PM , Rating: 2
Toms hardware posted this today..
http://m.tomshardware.com/news/Apple-Lightning-Cab...

Claims there is a chip in the lightening cable used for authentication and that we won't be seeing the $1-3 cheaply cables this time around...
If this holds up to be true it will be a sad sad realit that apple can take what we actually see as a positive change and turn it into ugly and green. I'm not saying its surprising just that its sad.




credentials
By Nortel on 9/24/12, Rating: -1
RE: credentials
By Cheesew1z69 on 9/24/2012 12:05:45 PM , Rating: 5
His opinion is more valid then someone like you IMO...


RE: credentials
By Brandon Hill (blog) on 9/24/2012 12:11:30 PM , Rating: 5
Back in the day, Kawasaki was Apple's Tony Swash ;)


RE: credentials
By zlandar on 9/24/2012 12:25:52 PM , Rating: 2
Maybe he was.

Then again Apple was a niche player with a Mac that was getting trampled by PCs.

The only time I ever fired up an Apple back then was to play Oregon Trail and Spy Hunter.


RE: credentials
By bah12 on 9/24/2012 12:26:30 PM , Rating: 3
So you agree that his opinion matters only as much as Tony's (in other words it doesn't matter)?

Look I agree with him 110%, but that this is "news" is laughable. Now if DT wants to do an editorial or blog on the unadulterated arrogance of Apple's lightning connector, fine, but to present this guy as any sort of Apple fanboi is a bit of a stretch is all.


RE: credentials
By Brandon Hill (blog) on 9/24/2012 12:33:52 PM , Rating: 2
No, I think that Guy's opinion is genuine and respectable.

My comment was more of a tongue in cheek observation that Tony seems to think of himself as a modern Apple evangelist.


RE: credentials
By testerguy on 9/24/2012 1:14:12 PM , Rating: 2
He's obviously not a very good technician if he can't work out why microUSB is limited and wouldn't have worked for Apple.

Even Samsung managed to work out that microUSB wasn't good enough, implementing a custom 11-pin MHL connector for the SG3 which broke compatibility with every single MHL accessory before it, whilst claiming that the SG3 supports MHL. Technically, because MHL specification doesn't include the connector - they are right, but what they did was just as bad - and just as necessary as what Apple did for the same reasons - bandwidth, redundancy, multiple device / data stream. Of course, Apples is also bidirectional.

Seems they may have had good reason to get shot of him if the basics elude him.


RE: credentials
By Mint on 9/24/2012 1:39:10 PM , Rating: 2
Samsung still tried to retain as much USB interoperability as they could. MHL is a pretty niche thing at the moment (few people use it, and even fewer will ever need more than one HDMI adapter), unlike USB (for input devices, audio, charging, etc).

Apple could have done the same thing, and in fact, if they did from the beginning, any enhancements that they made to USB OTG would have defined the standard due to their market leading position.


RE: credentials
By StevoLincolnite on 9/24/2012 1:45:15 PM , Rating: 4
Personally I would want a phone with a couple micro USB ports and that's it. If you break one, doesn't matter you can charge the phone from another. :)
Bandwidth won't be an issue if the USB 3 adoption picked up either.

But what I don't want is for us to go back to the days where every phone had a different charger, different data cable etc'.
That was a nightmare.


RE: credentials
By testerguy on 9/25/2012 2:25:04 AM , Rating: 2
quote:
Apple could have done the same thing


Given that Samsung has already created an 11-pin MHL, Apple can't copy that adapter - indeed it's not clear if any third party can copy that design.

If Apple created a different one you'd end up with two different types of 'standard' and it would end up just as fragmented.

Also, lightning is more durable than microUSB, and reversible.


RE: credentials
By Strunf on 9/25/2012 7:46:51 AM , Rating: 2
"He's obviously not a very good technician if he can't work out why microUSB is limited and wouldn't have worked for Apple."

Technically there isn't any limitation to micro-USB, USB seems to meet every single purpose on the PC market... even earplugs could be made to work on USB with a simple switch that would chance the digital pins into analog ones. The fact is this new connector like every other proprietary connector are a choice based on anything but technical reasons.


RE: credentials
By nafhan on 9/25/2012 10:43:57 AM , Rating: 3
Go for it. Explain to us why microUSB 3 is not good enough.

And, no, Samsung developing a proprietary connector is not a reason. That could just be Samsung wanting to jump on $40 dongle gravy train.


RE: credentials
By BillyBatson on 9/24/2012 3:14:04 PM , Rating: 2
It may be genuine but isn't respectable or current enough to be a valid opinion that we should care about.


RE: credentials
By Cheesew1z69 on 9/24/2012 3:30:49 PM , Rating: 2
No one asked YOU to care, if you don't CARE so much, why respond?

Ah right, you rush to the defense of Apple....


RE: credentials
By BillyBatson on 9/24/2012 5:19:09 PM , Rating: 2
I was defending apple in that post? Funny I thought I only mentioned the guy who the article was about. But people like you only see what they want to see.


RE: credentials
By Lord 666 on 9/24/2012 12:34:28 PM , Rating: 2
Even funnier is that Guy and Tony are about the same age.


RE: credentials
By JackBurton on 9/24/2012 6:01:36 PM , Rating: 1
LOL, I'm sure any opinion AGAINST Apple is 100% valid in your eyes.


RE: credentials
By invidious on 9/24/2012 12:13:02 PM , Rating: 5
The problem isn't the cable or the adapter itself. The problem is that instead of making the most practical solution for their customers Apple decided to made the most profitable solution for their bottom line. The end result difference isn't the point, the design philosphy is what is being criticized. And it is a criticism that I personally agree with as a former iPhone owner.


RE: credentials
By Souka on 9/24/2012 1:59:03 PM , Rating: 3
I hate propiertary connectors...am not a fan of Apple...but... IMHO, I do think this connector is a good choice.

The biggest annoyance I have with any phone is hooking it up to charge it. I must be aware of the phone's orientation, look at the plug and make sure it matches, then plug it in.

Even if aligned close, the MicroUSB connector doesn't just slide in...you often have to wiggle it.

Apple's new connector you just plug it in..

Example
Think about microUSB, vs Apple old, vs Apple new conectors.
Close your eyes...grab phone & cable and plug in. Which one is easist? Apple's new lightning connector, followed by Apple's old connector then MicroUSB.

I'm looking forward to the wireless charging being practical.

My $.02


RE: credentials
By Alexstarfire on 9/24/2012 4:38:08 PM , Rating: 2
I hook up my phone in the dark every day before I go to sleep. Other than when I switched phones I had no trouble being able to do this. Largely, that's probably because the micro USB end isn't symmetrical for my cable so it is easy to figure out which way the USB is facing. Only during about the first week of having my phone did I have any real trouble, and that's cause I kept forgetting where the plug is on my phone.

Can't say that ease of plugging in a connector would even cross someone's mind though.


RE: credentials
By jimbojimbo on 9/24/2012 11:48:04 PM , Rating: 2
My USB cable next to my bed has a permanent bend to it so I know which side is down all the time. So what's the problem?


RE: credentials
By Solandri on 9/25/2012 3:04:49 AM , Rating: 2
The Micro-USB connector has two small ridges on one side. It's trivial to run your finger across it before you plug it in to feel for them. If you feel the ridges scrape, then you know which side that's supposed to go on (the bottom on my phone). If it feels smooth, then you know it's the opposite side.

It's a big improvement over full-size USB (have to look at it on end to see which side the plastic is on), and even VGA/DVI (they're trapezoids, but the taper angle is so slight it's difficult to figure out orientation by feel). By definition you have to be holding the connector to plug it in, whereas you're not always able to see it.

So you can go with the cheap $0.001 solution which works 99% of the time. Or you can add $20 worth of electronics to make the connector work in either polarity for an extra 1% increase in functionality.


RE: credentials
By johnsonx on 9/25/2012 3:41:14 AM , Rating: 2
you actually have to physically plug a cable into your phone to charge it? that seems weird...


RE: credentials
By hartleyb on 9/24/2012 2:37:16 PM , Rating: 2
I'm not agreeing with Apple's position, but Micro USB isn't the answer either, as it has a host of problems. I'm also not a government intervention fan either, but at some point there needs to be a standard that every company must adhere to for the benefit of both the consumer, and the companies. We have other government standards for technology that are forced on companies for consumer benefit, why not cables and connectors. The UK did it, and it seems to be working fine for them. It would be nice if the companies listened to the customer on these issues, but they don’t, or won’t.


RE: credentials
By dark matter on 9/24/2012 12:37:55 PM , Rating: 2
Yawn. Apple fan defends Apple product.

Boring as fuck.


RE: credentials
By xti on 9/24/12, Rating: -1
RE: credentials
By BillyBatson on 9/24/2012 3:11:36 PM , Rating: 2
I was thinking the SAME thing!!!!! Why does this guys opinion matter?! Doesn't even state where he works now. 25 years ago, USB didn't even exist then.

And though I do hate that the new connector is proprietary and I won't easily be finding spare cables any time soon, I have to say that it is the BEST connector I have ever used on any device EVER! I wish USB and all it's variations swapped out to this or a similar design!


RE: credentials
By Cheesew1z69 on 9/24/2012 3:32:26 PM , Rating: 2
And your opinion matters why? Oh right, it doesn't.....


RE: credentials
By BillyBatson on 9/24/2012 5:27:05 PM , Rating: 1
I think my opinion at this point is more valid than his and maybe more so since I actually own the device and other devices using micro USB and am actually comparing heir uses.
Why are you defending this guy? If it was bill gates, someone currently at intel, a rival companies CEO, hell the inventor of USB... Being featured in this article making the same claims I would understand , but someone none of us have heard of, that has never worked for apple while anything with a USB was even being made, the article doesn't mention he still works for anyone or if he is still in the tech industry, who whether you agree with what he is saying or not shouldn't care for his specific opinion. So if the product marketing manager at petco was featured in a dailytech article spouting off about micro USB you would care for his opinion too?


RE: credentials
By JCheng on 9/25/2012 4:22:59 AM , Rating: 2
You may not have heard of him but Guy Kawasaki is a very big deal in Silicon Valley and has been for many years. Anyone who works at Apple even today would surely have heard of him (well, maybe not the employees at the retail stores or whatever, but people who design and build the products). He is not just someone who was a software evangelist for a few years, forever ago; he invented the role of software evangelist and he did it at a time when the Mac was just getting off the ground.

He is (was?) also an Apple Fellow, from what I can tell the only business guy on that very short list (which includes Alan Kay, Woz, Don Norman, and Allan Alcorn, who all loom large in computing history).

I'm not saying he knows anything about phone connectors in 2012, and agree maybe this article shouldn't have made dailytech, but he's certainly got more credibility on Apple matters than the vast majority of people in this industry, much less a petco employee ;)


RE: credentials
By Cheesew1z69 on 9/25/2012 1:45:30 PM , Rating: 2
quote:
I think my opinion at this point is more valid than his and maybe more so
No...sorry...


1983-1987?
By JackBurton on 9/24/12, Rating: -1
RE: 1983-1987?
By XZerg on 9/24/2012 12:45:41 PM , Rating: 3
ahhh... bash one product and praise another, and yet provide no real comparison for either. is that the way to do give a proper objective opinion?


RE: 1983-1987?
By hartleyb on 9/24/2012 2:46:49 PM , Rating: 1
Micro-USB, poor reliability, breaks often, lacks bandwith capacity for good two way data comunications, doesn't support true HD capability...should I go on!!!!! Not agreeing with Apple's position, but micro-usb isn't the answer either.


RE: 1983-1987?
By Cheesew1z69 on 9/24/2012 3:04:21 PM , Rating: 2
Yes...please do go on. Poor reliability? Breaks often? LOLOLOL


RE: 1983-1987?
By theapparition on 9/24/2012 4:05:33 PM , Rating: 1
quote:
doesn't support true HD capability


Seriously? Why didn't anyone tell me I couldn't watch those HD movies through my MHL adapter. Why did I spend hours watching HD movies output from my phone to the HDTV without anyone enlightening me that I wasn't really watching HD.

Now I know that the HD movies I watched didn't really support HD capability.

Thankfully, you're around to let me know. Or to throw around BS. Guess I'll have to pick the second choice.


RE: 1983-1987?
By testerguy on 9/25/2012 2:32:25 AM , Rating: 2
HD is relative.

Which specific resolution are you talking about?

In many cases people are actually sending compressed video and compressed audio - so watching the movie doesn't prove the bandwidth argument wrong.

Try transferring Full HD with HD audio whilst charging your device and allowing the device to control the dock / vice versa, over microUSB.

It wont work, which is why Samsung created a proprietary 11 pin MHL connector.


RE: 1983-1987?
By vailr on 10/1/2012 2:23:17 AM , Rating: 2
Shouldn't mini-USB 3.0 be capable of vastly better bandwidth than Apple's new Lightning connector? From what I understand, the Lightning connector is only comparable to USB 2.0 speeds, when simply copying a video file from an iPhone to a PC, for example.
Has anyone asked Apple why they didn't simply go with mini-USB 3.0 connecter instead? The control circuitry would be too bulky for an iPhone, or: ?


RE: 1983-1987?
By Alexstarfire on 9/24/2012 4:40:58 PM , Rating: 2
If we're just making stuff up then I'm just going to say that Apple's new port will kill you if you touch it wrong.


RE: 1983-1987?
By gladiatorua on 9/25/2012 3:11:05 PM , Rating: 2
Poor reliability and breaking often might true. Everything else is BS.
I don't like micro-usb. I hate proprietary connectors even more.
I would be fine with Apple proposing new good standard for the industry, but that won't happen, because it might hurt their short term bottom line.


RE: 1983-1987?
By JackBurton on 9/24/2012 5:58:45 PM , Rating: 1
Just the fact that it is reversible is a BIG plus. I can't stand the micro-USB connector just for that fact alone.


RE: 1983-1987?
By Camikazi on 9/24/2012 7:02:19 PM , Rating: 2
Never understood how someone can have trouble with micro-USB plugs, I can plug my phone, MP3 player, camera, camcorder in the dark with no problem what so ever. Maybe I just pay more attention than most people but I have always wondered how people can get it wrong each time.


RE: 1983-1987?
By Cheesew1z69 on 9/25/2012 1:47:14 PM , Rating: 2
Because, it's not Apple, that's how and why..


RE: 1983-1987?
By XZerg on 9/24/2012 7:17:33 PM , Rating: 2
that definitely is a magical feature, and definitely worth going non-standard. please make sure to buy 10 so you can have it everywhere you go.

</sarcasm-end>


RE: 1983-1987?
By ZoZo on 9/24/2012 1:02:58 PM , Rating: 2
Of course Apple's connector is better. How else could they justify not going with the standard?
The criticism is about the fact that it's not nearly better enough to justify forgoing the standard. And even if they needed a better connector, they did not try to submit a new design to improve the standard. Instead they went their own way.


RE: 1983-1987?
By testerguy on 9/25/2012 2:34:06 AM , Rating: 2
Much like Samsung did, with their 11 pin MHL adapter, aimed at addressing exactly the same deficiencies in microUSB.


Pot meet Kettle
By Shadowself on 9/24/12, Rating: -1
RE: Pot meet Kettle
By Reclaimer77 on 9/24/12, Rating: 0
RE: Pot meet Kettle
By Tony Swash on 9/24/2012 8:30:00 PM , Rating: 1
quote:
Yes but if you really think about it, that makes his opinion on Lightning even MORE credible don't you think?


Only to twerps like you.


By StevoLincolnite on 9/24/2012 1:51:07 PM , Rating: 3
That's hilarious.

An iPhone, iPod or iPad do not have the CPU power, GPU power or Memory to even render a movie at such a resolution... So such a feature would be completely utterly pointless.


By StevoLincolnite on 9/24/2012 1:51:52 PM , Rating: 2
Unless you are using it for 2D pictures of course* But meh.

Also I desire an edit button. :(


By someguy123 on 9/24/2012 6:26:44 PM , Rating: 2
You're not going to get 4k video without HEVC. It's also going to be substantially more computationally expensive than h264 even disregarding the resolution. Also not sure why you wouldn't be able to do that through USB.


"Well, we didn't have anyone in line that got shot waiting for our system." -- Nintendo of America Vice President Perrin Kaplan














botimage
Copyright 2014 DailyTech LLC. - RSS Feed | Advertise | About Us | Ethics | FAQ | Terms, Conditions & Privacy Information | Kristopher Kubicki