A Brave New LED World
December 15, 2007 11:12 PM
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Scientist hope to put LEDs to work in brilliant new ways
light emitting diodes
, are a very old invention, with the first visible-light diode being invented in 1962. They consist of a junction of semiconducting material, such as a silicon or gallium compound. However, scientists today are looking to teach this old dog some new tricks, and putting LEDs
in a plethora of
The magic is in the material. While LEDs have been around for a long time, new and exotic materials are being used and older materials are being tweaked and reformulated to provide, a wider range of colors, brighter light, and higher efficiency.
The result is that LEDs may soon be permeating our lives in new ways. LEDs are already
invading the automobile headlight industry
and are in high demand due to their superior life and brightness.
Now one place scientists are looking to plant the LED is in the home. Tungsten lightbulbs have a very low 5% efficiency, compared to modern LEDs, which have around a healthy 40% efficiency. The result is power savings, increased brightness, and superior life. Obstacles standing in the way of this development are the still higher cost of LEDs and the fact that LEDs' white light has much more blue than sunlight or natural bulbs. However, these obstacles are fading as costs slowly drop and scientists develop better material blends to provide more yellow to the LED's emissions, making for a warm light that would be welcome in many a household.
Scientists are also looking to put tiny LEDs to a new use in the lab and eventually in commercial internet connections -- quantum cryptography. Tiny streams of photons in the system would pass from the LED to the a detector. Any interception of the beam (ie. snooping) would result in the signal being altered, as per the
. Such a system, when properly implemented would be in theory immune to any sort of malicious interception between the sender and the receiver.
Yet another use for the little lights has been proposed by scientists -- this one with promise of bringing new high-tech hope to impoverished regions. One of the world's largest problems is the lack of clean drinking water in third-world nations. Chemicals can be used to treat drinking water, but they are often expensive, toxic, and require a large amount of infrastructure. A frequently used alternative is high-energy UV light known as "deep UV", emitted from special UV bulbs. Passing a beam of this light through water kills most bacteria and destroys most viruses cleanly and simply. The issue with this system is bulbs constantly need to be replaced and are two bulky for small scale use.
Scientists feel the answer is deep UV LEDs. While they are still working on perfecting the materials, researchers, such as Dr Rachel Oliver, an LED researcher from the University of Cambridge, think it is just a matter of time before the optimal combination of materials is found.
"Deep-UV can't be made from the combination of materials we're used to, although I certainly think it's possible," Dr. Oliver stated.
Dr. Oliver is among many researchers striving to put LEDs to use in new and creative ways. She sees LEDs being commercially implemented in the aforementioned uses within 10 to 20 years.
For now these prospects still remaining cost prohibitive and are dependent on material breakthroughs, but the future sure looks bright for these little devices. And companies are looking to put LEDs today to a different and even more outlandish use --
every airport security officer's worst nightmare
Whatever their form, LEDs are transforming the way we light and see our world.
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RE: home light
12/16/2007 11:28:24 PM
Compared to LEDs, even incandescent bulbs are terrible for rapid on/off cycle lifespan. There is no other light source I'm aware of that is even tolerant of 1/10th as much cycling as an LED. The problem with incandescents lies in high inrush current until the filament is heated.
RE: home light
12/17/2007 3:10:07 PM
Incandescent couldn't be all that bad for cycling. After all, they've been used for decades in traditional "cycling" applications like stoplights, railroad crossings, industrial indicators, automotive turn signals, etc. etc.
RE: home light
12/18/2007 4:27:08 AM
In a world that wasn't concerned about efficiency, yes.
Today, to reach high efficiency it means using switching supplies with high frequency pulses of power.
That is, if one uses LEDs. Consider that for stoplights, many have already been replaced because their failure rates at the on/off duty cycle were costing more than the investment in LEDs to replace them.
How bad they are is just relative, even a turn signal goes through a mere few dozen thousand cycles while an LED can tolerate than in one single day, and keep running for a few dozen years if all the supporting infrastructure remains viable.
LEDs have no equal in cycling. the only problem is when penny pinchers or foolish designers try to overdrive them to conserve space, or construction costs of lighting fixtures. Overdrive an LED enough and the energy savings wasn't of much importance, relatively, compared to energy to replace it and that cost, but as with all industries there is enough interest that the body of knowledge will soon enough allow even average joe customers to ask the hard questions about how the specs were achieved and demand a standardization beyond the discrete part output, rather specs about the achieved performance as implemented in the particular device.
I suspect even railroad crossing lights are being replaced by LEDs when the local budget allows, but on the other hand it wouldn't make much sense to do so until the stockpile of old incandescent bulbs were used up.
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