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Fig. 1: Payola and Editorial Sales Breakout -- We noted a strong corelation between sites that used editorial staff as sales, and sites that were willing to take cash in exchange for editorial content.

Fig. 2: Online Payola against Publication Age -- Older and younger sites tended to refuse advertising and cash in exchange for editorial content.

Fig. 3: Online Payola against Region: The only English-speaking country that did not report any Payola was Australia. Payola was fairly uniformly spread across the rest of worldwide English publications.

Fig. 4: Online Payola against Size: Larger, professional websites didn't accept payola. Smaller, hobby websites showed no interest in payola. Sites in the 5 million to 10 million pagehits per month range were the most suspect.
A three-month study of the online technology publication industry uncovers pay-to-review tactics, viral marketing and a few beacons of light

During the 1960s a new term was born into the music industry: Payola. A combination of the words "pay" and "Victrola," payola represented an increasingly large problem in the music industry: record companies paid radio stations to play and promote new records.

The immorality of paying radio station disc jockeys to air music did not become apparent until investigations by Federal Trade and Federal Communication Commission. Several deejays from the era were eventually found guilty of commercial bribery charges and deliberate legislation was eventually proposed, and sanctioned, that specifically banned the practice of payola in the U.S., with stiff consequences.

Title 47 of the United States Code details specific federal legislation for radio, telegraphs, communication satellites, and cable TV, but it does not address similar payola schemes with regard to internet publications. There are no legal ramifications for online publications that accept profits in exchange for pay: online payola.

Jasper Schneider, owner of enthusiast hobby site and a practicing attorney at Schneider Law Firm, reflected on his experience in dealing with advertisers and his legal background.  "Without any uniform ethical standards or statutory law governing the online publications, online payola certainly exists.”  He continues, “If it doesn’t exist expressly, it is often implied when dealing with certain advertisers.”

Over the past three months, DailyTech put together a series of faux companies, product portfolios and trademarks.  In a combination of phone and email correspondences, our team of journalists set out to find illicit and unethical review behavior in the English-print, computer hardware review industry. 

Specifically, these journalists looked for publications that were:
  • Willing to sell advertisements (receive funds) in exchange for publishing content.
  • Willing to sell advertisements (receive funds) in exchange editor's choice awards.
  • Willing to offer viral marketing in exchange for cash and resale hardware.
Manufacturers pressure publications from all sides when attempting to secure headlines and positive reviews.  No money actually exchanged hands during this analysis, and the working relationships lasted less than a week.

There are approximately 150 circulated English-print technology websites; our team specifically targeted the 35 largest publications.  We determined the size of these publications via Alexa’s online index and publication-supplied web statistics.  DailyTech was included among this list.

Of 35 online computer-related publications, 23 (66 percent) refused editorial influence in exchange for advertising. Of remaining 12, seven publications (20 percent, Fig. 1) agreed to editorial service in exchange for advertising or cash.

To the credit of all publications surveyed, no website would accept additional funds in exchange for award.  However, it should be noted that our team discovered several instances of questionable ethics in a very short time span, without even supplying the publications product or payout.

The following response from an editor who also acts as the sales representative is an excerpt from a publication that represented the typical response of all border-line publications:
"The people who do sponsor the site, who advertise and keep good relationships with us, they will get priority on reviews. So if we get a motherboard in from you guys and one from company X, and you advertise and company X does not, we'll review your product first or more in-depth or at the launch time, which ever would get the most exposure. It doesn't really affect the content of the review exactly, but it definitely affects whether or not we'll spend the extra time with it."
14 of the 35 sites polled used independent sales teams: editorial staff is not responsible for advertising content at these publications (Fig. 1).  All sites that used separate sales staff would not influence editorial content even when tempted with several thousands of dollars of advertising perks and free hardware.

Adam Eiberger, a non-editorial sales representative from The Tech Report, parlayed the most succinct argument.  After an offering of several thousand dollars worth of advertising, in exchange for a news post and review, Eiberger responded:
"We have a real strong policy at The Tech Report of what we like to call separation of church and state, where essentially the editorial content is separate from the marketing and the advertising ... you are not going to be able to buy a review or an article.”
Four external sales teams represented 11 of the 35 sites polled.  Each sales team refused our requests for additional content and illicit reviews. 

Website age demonstrated significant impact for payola (Fig. 2).  None of the five publications founded before 1998 would accept any form of compensation in exchange of content. Granted, it should also be noted that these older publications all used non-editorial sales representatives.

Geographical region showed little to no impact for online payola (Fig. 3).  By volume, the highest number of online payola came from North America, though it should be noted that the majority of English-print publications are also found in this region.

European websites also had its own examples of online payola. The following is a conversation between DailyTech intern Gabriel Ikram, posing as a sales agent for a motherboard company, and an editorial contact for a publication:
Ikram: "We'd be willing to pay a little more for ads if you can get us some articles on ******"
******: "Ok, I can help arrange that."

Ikram: "If we could spend a little more money [on ads] could you get us maybe a couple more articles?"
******: "Yeah, that's fine, that's fine."
An executive from Kreative Wave, Inc., a third-party public relations firm, emphasizes the baleful business of soliciting press. “These companies, they’re always looking for exposure,” she states.  “And the websites take advantage of that.  They do reviews; they want something nice.  That something nice is advertisements or hardware.”

Website size also showed some impact on payola trends (Fig. 4).  When divided into fifths, payola only occurred in the middle three-fifths.  The media size of these publications was approximately 5 million to 10 million page hits per month.

The following is an email response from an editorial sales contact representing another website:
"Also let me know about the $1,500-$3,000 per site as that money does go a long way for us! We'd be more than happy to give you 2 to 3 months of advertising and the review in exchange for that!"
It’s easy to see why payola can damage the industry as a whole, as well as enable a slippery slope of downward ethical spiral.  During the investigation, three publications – all of which had already agreed to some level of online payola – were willing to pose as non-staff forum members and hype the upcoming product at the publication’s Internet forums.

Once presented with the data for this article, Schnieder paused before responding. “I think if you look back even five years, you would have seen this type of thing be much more common than it is today.”  He concludes, “Like most things, the marketplace will eventually weed out the businesses and websites who choose to operate in this manner.”

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RE: Which countries?
By Treckin on 6/3/2007 7:53:10 PM , Rating: 3
I understand that you are confused... Reading can be hard occasionally...

It said all English language hardware review sites, of which there are 150, and they chose the 35 largest, which is basically the upper 25% of English hardware review sites.

RE: Which countries?
By Justin Case on 6/4/2007 3:37:15 PM , Rating: 1
Yes, apparently reading can be confusing. You clearly didn't understand what I wrote, or you woundn't have "replied" with something that doesn't answer my question.

So read it again:

Why does Europe appear with a single color? Did they test sites from every country? Last time I checked, there aren't any English-speaking countries in continental Europe (unless you count Gibraltar, but that's not a country). There are more English-speaking countries in Africa (for which apparently there is no data).

So, assuming they tested a few sites from the UK (which isn't even part of eurozone), why does Greece, Italy, the Vatican, etc., get branded with the same "25%"...? If they have no data for those countries, show them in blue, like they did with Africa and South America.

RE: Which countries?
By KristopherKubicki on 6/4/2007 5:52:56 PM , Rating: 2
There are English-print publications based out of non-english speaking countries in Europe.

RE: Which countries?
By Justin Case on 6/4/2007 10:06:46 PM , Rating: 1
If by "publications" you mean web sites, I'm sure there are. Just as there are sites in other languages "published" in the US. But how does that make a difference?

The question is still unanswered: did you test (at least) one "publication" per country, in Europe? If not (and the information in the article suggests you didn't), it doesn't seem very accurate to extrapolate a few English websites to all Europe, especially when English is not the primary language in any continental European country. Europe is not like the US; nearby countries can have completely different languages, different cultures, different laws, etc..

I realise that you can't get people who speak all European languages, to test a relevant number of sites / companies in every single country, but then you should limit your report to the ones you actually tested.

Did you test any Greek sites, for example? If not, why is Greece listed with "25%"? And so on for the rest.

RE: Which countries?
By ChoadNamath on 6/5/2007 12:37:42 AM , Rating: 2
You seem to be missing the point. They only tested the top 25% or so of English-language hardware review sites, then grouped the results by region. They separated Canada and America presumably because there were more English-language sites in these countries, as well as it being Dailytech's home turf. Europe and Asia were grouped as regions because they probably didn't have as many sites. Did you honestly want them to go through the nations of the world one by one? You're being a bit too anal, it was just a visual aid.

RE: Which countries?
By Justin Case on 6/5/2007 7:21:47 PM , Rating: 1
Did you even bother to read what I wrote, before replying? Let me call your attention to this paragraph:

I realise that you can't get people who speak all European languages, to test a relevant number of sites / companies in every single country, but then you should limit your report to the ones you actually tested.

I think it's pretty straightforward. Saying that "25% of sites in [Greece / Bulgaria / etc.] take payola" when they didn't actually test a single site in those coutnries is misleading and unethical.

Europe and the US are very different. In the US, different states may have some differences, but they share a common culture, common media, etc.. In Europe, two neighboring countries often have different languages, different cultures and different laws. You cannot extrapolate a couple of English and German sites (for example) to all of Europe. Same thing for Asia.

So, if they didn't test every country (which, as I had already written above, would probably be impossible), simply leave the ones they didn't test in blue on the map (without any "result"), like they did for Africa and South America.

RE: Which countries?
By dok405 on 6/6/2007 1:21:27 AM , Rating: 3
I completely agree. I'm also quite mad that they rounded some of the percentages. It isn't accurate if it doesn't have at least two decimal places.

RE: Which countries?
By Justin Case on 6/8/2007 12:19:20 PM , Rating: 2
Yup, I think you're right. With a sample of, say, zero websites (plur or minus zero) for most of the countries "graded", I think the extra decimal places are essential. After all, an accuracy of 0.00% is totally different from 0%.

"So, I think the same thing of the music industry. They can't say that they're losing money, you know what I'm saying. They just probably don't have the same surplus that they had." -- Wu-Tang Clan founder RZA

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