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Navy scientists claim that slices of CR-39 plastic, like this one, have recorded the passage of atomic particles emitted during successful cold fusion nulcear reactions. Photo by Steven B. Krivit, New Energy Times
New proof that cold fusion works could fuel additional interest in generating power from low energy nuclear reactions

Cold fusion, the ability to generate nuclear power at room temperatures, has proven to be a highly elusive feat. In fact, it is considered by many experts to be a mere pipe dream -- a potentially unlimited source of clean energy that remains tantalizing,  but so far unattainable.

However, a recently published academic paper from the Navy's Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center (SPAWAR) in San Diego throws cold water on skeptics of cold fusion. Appearing in the respected journal Naturwissenschaften, which counts Albert Einstein among its distinguished authors, the article claims that Spawar scientists Stanislaw Szpak and Pamela Mosier-Boss have achieved a low energy nuclear reaction (LENR) that can be replicated and verified by the scientific community.

Cold fusion has gotten the cold shoulder from serious nuclear physicists since 1989, when Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischmann were unable to substantiate their sensational claims that deuterium nuclei could be forced to fuse and release excess energy at room temperature. Spawar researchers apparently kept the faith, however, and continued to refine the procedure by experimenting with new fusionable materials.

Szpak and Boss now claim to have succeeded at last by coating a thin wire with palladium and deuterium, then subjected it to magnetic and electric fields. The researchers have offered plastic films called CR-39 detectors as evidence that charged particles have been emerging from their reaction experiments.

The Spawar method shows promise, particularly in terms of being easily reproduced and verified by other institutions. Such verification is essential to widespread acceptance of the apparent breakthrough and is an important precursor to scientists receiving the necessary funding to fuel additional research in the field.

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By lewisglarsen on 5/10/2007 12:08:39 PM , Rating: 2
Contrary to most of the existing “cold fusion” scientists, Widom and larsen believe that certain well-established anomalous experimental results (e.g. He-4 production, excess heat, transmutations) that have frequently been reported by researchers in the field since 1989 are best explained by invoking the weak interaction, not strong interaction fusion or fission. Our theoretical model of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions is outlined in four readily available papers noted below.

Importantly, no “new physics” is involved here, merely an extension of collective effects to electroweak theory within the context of the Standard Model. Thus, the phenomenon is not strong interaction “cold fusion” and never was!

So here are short, "plain English" summaries of our 4 published papers. They will hopefully provide readers with a high-level conceptual overview of what we are doing in each of our papers before having to delve into the gory details of the physics and mathematics.

Using the Widom-Larsen theory, Lattice can now answer three key questions about anomalous LENR experimental results that previous "cold fusion" researchers have been unable to answer to the satisfaction of the mainstream physics community for the past 18 years. These questions and our answers to them are:

Question 1 - If LENRs are truly based on the process of fusing two positively charged deuterons, then how is the Coulomb repulsion barrier overcome at the moderate temperatures and pressures that prevail in LENR laboratory experiments? It is well known that stars such as our sun require temperatures of millions of degrees and enormous pressures to trigger nuclear fusion.

Widom and Larsen answer - LENRs do not involve strong interaction fusion of charged deuterons or protons. Rather, LENRs involve the weak capture of surface electrons (bathed in a soft electromagnetic radiation field) by collectively oscillating "patches" of protons or deuterons located on metallic hydride surfaces. Under such conditions, protons or deuterons in the "patches" can react directly with surface electrons, thereby producing "ultracold" ultra low momentum neutrons which then function as uncharged "nuclear catalysts." Such neutrons are always locally absorbed by nearby nuclei, triggering additional "weak" nuclear transmutation reactions (which create different chemical elements) and the release of heat. Importantly, there are no Coulomb barriers to such weak interactions; so extremely high temperatures and pressures are not required, as is the case with strong interaction fusion processes. The neutrinos that are always produced when neutrons are created simply radiate off into space; they don't really interact locally with anything on Earth.

Question 2 - Why aren't large quantities of high momentum (energetic) neutrons produced in LENR systems, as would be expected from typical nuclear fusion or fission processes?

Widom and Larsen answer - As stated above, weak interaction nuclear reactions are not Coulomb barrier penetrating as would be the case with strong interaction nuclear fusion. Furthermore, the initial weak nuclear interactions produce only ultra low momentum neutrons that are locally absorbed by nearby nuclei. Accordingly, we would not expect biologically significant quantities of energetic neutrons to be externally detected in LENR systems, which is exactly what has been observed in thousands of experiments.

Question 3 - Why aren't large quantities of "hard" gamma/X-ray radiation seen in LENR experiments that have also produced substantial amounts of excess heat and/or nuclear transmutations? It is widely appreciated that the anomalously large excess heat and/or transmutations observed in LENR experiments cannot be explained by a chemical process without invoking nuclear reactions. However, typical nuclear processes such as fission or fusion would be expected to emit copious, lethal doses of energetic X- and gamma rays during experiments. So, why aren't all the many LENR experimentalists dead from hard radiation poisoning?

Widom and Larsen answer - The expected gamma rays are in fact produced when ultra low momentum neutrons are locally absorbed by nuclei in LENR systems. However, surface electrons bathed in "soft" low energy radiation also have the unique ability to quickly and efficiently absorb "hard" gamma rays and convert the gammas' energy into other "soft" radiation --- that is, mostly into the form of many more soft infrared photons (heat). Thus, in LENR systems, hard gamma ray photons in the energy range between 0.5 MeV and 10.0 MeV are locally absorbed and converted directly into heat. Importantly, in the relatively rare cases in which gamma radiation has been detected experimentally in LENR systems, the observed quantities of hard radiation are relatively small (not biologically significant) with energies that are strongly suppressed above about 0.5 MeV, exactly as predicted by our theory. So, LENR systems have intrinsic built-in gamma shielding, a remarkable property by any standard.

According to our theory, primary end-products of LENRs include stable isotopes, beta and alpha particles, "soft" electromagnetic radiation (in most LENR systems, predominantly infrared along with some barely measurable amounts of low-energy X-rays), and neutrinos. The ~1 MeV electron neutrinos, of course, radiate without any consequence into the environment.

Also according to our theory, in LENR systems, extremely neutron-rich, unstable intermediate reaction products turn into stable elements very quickly via cascades of rapid beta decays. In the case of LENRs, these very neutron-rich intermediates probably have half-lives measured in milliseconds, seconds, minutes, or at most hours --- typically not days, months, or many years. We believe that this is exactly why LENR systems do not produce large quantities of long-lived radioactive isotopes like existing commercial fission reactors; importantly, there are no known nuclear waste disposal issues with LENR systems.

Generally, X-rays, when detected, comprise small fluxes of "soft" photons. Biologically dangerous quantities of really "hard" (MeV+ energy) X- and/or gamma rays have never been observed in thousands of experiments with LENR systems over 18 years.

In our opinion, the phenomenon of LENRs is not predominantly strong interaction fusion or fission. According to our work, LENRs are mainly driven by the weak interaction. Sadly, the "cold fusion" people have doggedly pursued an incorrect D-D fusion paradigm since 1989. That problem, along with substantial misdirection of experimental work and other related "wheel spinning," is one of the many reasons why the field stagnated for so long, as noted in numerous critical comments made by outside scientists during the last DOE "cold fusion" review panel back in 2004.

(1) Eur. Phys. J. C 46, 107-111 (2006), "Ultra low momentum neutron catalyzed nuclear reactions on metallic hydride surfaces"

The mass of electrons embedded in collectively oscillating surface plasma oscillations can be markedly increased (renormalized) by the extremely high electric fields (> 10*11 volt/meter) occurring in surface layers of protons or deuterons of loaded metallic hydrides. The resulting "heavy" electrons can react spontaneously with local protons or deuterons to produce neutrons and neutrinos. Neutrons created collectively under these conditions have almost virtually zero momentum or equivalently very long quantum mechanical wavelengths which dramatically increase neutron absorption in the neighborhood of condensed matter surfaces. These ultra low momentum neutrons can catalyze local nuclear reaction networks. Examples of such reactions are provided.

(2), "Absorption of Nuclear Gamma Radiation by Heavy Electrons on Metallic Hydride Surfaces"

This preprint (submitted to a refereed journal) provides a theoretical explanation for effective suppression of gamma radiation and efficient absorption of ultra low momentum neutrons in LENR systems. It is explained why neutron absorption by nearby nuclei in LENR systems do not result in the external release of large, easily observable fluxes of hard energetic gammas and X-rays. Specifically, we show that surface electrons bathed in already soft radiation can convert the hard gamma radiation into soft radiation. The number of gammas in the energetic region from 0.5 MeV to 10.0 MeV is strongly suppressed at the condensed matter surface and the energy appears as softer (less energetic) heat radiation. The short mean free paths of both ultra low momentum neutrons and hard gamma radiation are computed in the neighborhood of condensed matter surfaces. In LENR systems, the gamma absorbing layer of surface electrons already bathed in soft radiation has the ability to stop a very dangerous ~5 MeV gamma ray in less than two nanometers -- two-billionths of a meter. With existing materials technologies, it would take ~10 cm of lead, ~25 cm of steel, or ~1 meter of very heavy concrete to accomplish the same degree of shielding.

(3), "Nuclear Abundances in Metallic Hydride Electrodes of Electrolytic Chemical Cells"

This preprint (submitted to a refereed journal) discusses a model for the anomalous patterns of nuclear abundances experimentally observed in metallic hydride cathodes of electrolytic chemical cells. These experimental transmuted nuclear abundances have been something of a scientific enigma since they were first published by Prof. George H. Miley in the Dept. of Nuclear Engineering of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The data is interpreted as primarily the result of a neutron absorption spectrum. Ultra low momentum neutrons are produced (along with virtually inert neutrinos) by the weak interaction annihilation of electrons and protons when the chemical cell is driven strongly out of equilibrium. Appreciable quantities of these neutrons are produced on the surface of a metal hydride cathode in an electrolytic cell. The ultra low momentum of these neutrons implies extremely large cross-sections for absorption by various "seed" nuclei present on or near the surface of a cathode in a chemical cell, increasing their nuclear masses. The increasing masses eventually lead to instabilities relieved by beta decay processes, thereby increasing the nuclear charge. In this manner, "…most of the periodic table of chemical elements may be produced, at least to some extent.” The experimentally observed pattern of distinctive peaks and valleys in the transmuted nuclear mass-spectrum reflect the neutron absorption resonance peaks as theoretically computed employing a simple and conventional neutron optical model potential well. An intriguing possibility is briefly noted in the paper. The varieties of different elements and isotopes that we find in the world around us were thought to arise exclusively from nuclear reactions in stars and supernova explosions. However, recent astrophysical calculations have indicated some weaknesses in the above picture regarding the strengths of the neutron flux created in a supernova. Our paper suggests that, “It appears entirely possible that ultra low momentum neutron absorption may have an important role to play in the nuclear abundances not only in chemical cells but also in our local solar system and galaxy."

(4), "Theoretical standard model rates of proton to neutron conversions near metallic hydride surfaces"

This latest paper (submitted to a refereed journal) aims to answer an important question posed by many astute readers of our earlier publications on this subject. Assuming that one believes the rest of our physics, can we show computations demonstrating that these claimed proton to ultra low momentum neutron conversions can take place at the substantial rates observed in the laboratory?

In this preprint, we discuss how to compute low energy nuclear reaction rates for the process of radiation-induced electron capture by protons or deuterons producing new ultra low momentum neutrons and neutrinos. For protons or deuterons in the neighborhoods of surfaces of condensed matter metallic hydride chemical cell cathodes, the radiation energy required for such nuclear reactions may be supplied by the applied voltage required to push a strong charged electric currents through certain chemical cells. The rates of the resulting ultra low momentum neutron production are computed from the standard electroweak theory in satisfactory agreement with the available experimental data.

L. Larsen, CEO of Lattice Energy LLC and Prof. A. Widom, Dept. of Physics, Northeastern University

"Nowadays, security guys break the Mac every single day. Every single day, they come out with a total exploit, your machine can be taken over totally. I dare anybody to do that once a month on the Windows machine." -- Bill Gates

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