This summer, AMD will announce its first major architectural
change since the introduction of the K8 architecture in 2003. This new
architecture, dubbed K10, will first make an appearance in the server space,
with the introduction of the Barcelona-family processors.
K10 features a native quad-core design that incorporates shared-L3 cache,
HyperTransport-3 support and backwards functionality with AM2
motherboards. However, the original K10 desktop and server processors
will debut on the 65nm architecture -- a process AMD only started mastering in
December 2006 with the launch of the Brisbane desktop CPU family.
In the second half of 2008, AMD will begin to migrate its K10 architecture to
the 45nm node. AMD explicitly mentions that its 45nm process technology
utilizes silicon-on-insulator (SOI). Intel's 45nm process node, slated
for introduction later this year, uses conventional CMOS process
The halo AMD 45nm chip, Deneb FX, shares the same functionality as its 65nm
counterpart, Agena. Both families incorporate native quad-core designs and shared-L3 cache support. Deneb FX goes one step further, adding support for DDR3
on the integrated memory controller.
However, the bulk of AMD's 45nm quad-core offerings will come with the Deneb
(non-FX) family. AMD suggests Deneb will be the first processor on the
new AM3 socket. Previous AMD documentation indicated that AM2 and AM3
would be forward/backward compatible -- yet AMD engineers claim the AM3 alluded to in
2006 is not the same AM3 referenced in the 2008 launch schedule.
"At the time AM3 was the likely candidate to become AM2+," claimed
one field application engineer familiar with AMD's socket migration.
"[AMD] wanted to keep the socket name associated with DDR2 memory and
backwards compatibility, but AM3 emphasizes DDR3 support."
After Deneb, and closer to 2009, AMD's guidance states that 45nm Propus and
Regor will replace the 65nm Kuma and Rana mid-range products. Propus is
very similar to Deneb: 45nm, shared L3 cache, AM3 package. However,
Propus will only feature two cores. Regor is identical to Propus, but
will not include shared-L3 cache support.
AMD's low-end single core Athlon 64 and Sempron appear consolidated with the
introduction of the Sargas family. Sargas is an optical shrink of the
65nm Spica core, with the addition of DDR3 support and AM3 packaging.
AMD's ultra-low end Sparta-family, slated for introduction this year to replace
the Manila-family Semprons, has no successor.
AMD product managers are keeping details of their 45nm technology close. However, this past January AMD and IBM jointly announced plans
for high-k, metal gate transistors on future 45nm and 32nm processors.
This past February, AMD senior vice
president of technology development Douglas Grose claimed the company is still
anticipating whether or not it will use high-k metal gate technology in later
45nm revisions or if the company will wait until 32nm.
Intel also announced its intention to debut high-k, metal gate technology on its 45nm node, but the company went one step further to confirm this new transistor technique will appear on the Penryn processor. Intel guidance suggests Penryn will see its first retail availability late this year -- at least a year before Deneb.
Seyer, AMD senior vice president, recently disclosed AMD's 45nm server offering
slated for release in 2008. Seyer stated that Shanghai, the 45nm
successor to Barcelona, would feature additional cache and other performance enhancements.
Seyer or Grose would not comment on what these performance enhancements, though
features from AMD's server products typically appear on the desktop components