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The bell tolls for "Nehalem" when Intel's clock strikes next in 2008
More details of Intel's next-generation architecture unveiled

Intel's "tick tock" development cycle continues to chime with the Nehalem processor architecture scheduled for production next year. Intel Senior Vice President Pat Gelsinger detailed the advanced features on the next-generation to DailyTech earlier today.

In the second half of this year, Intel will release its first 45nm Penryn-based processors.  While nearly identical architecturally to the Core 2 Duo processors released last year, Penryn's 45nm node allows Intel to put more L2 cache onboard; the company already announced Penryn-based processors will utilize up to 12MB of L2 cache on quad-core designs.

Intel's 45nm node utilizes metal transistor gates and high-k dielectrics.  The departure from silicon-based transistors translates to a 5-fold reduction in source-drain leakage and a 10-fold reduction in dielectric leakage.  According to Intel guidance, this means existing processors could run 20% faster just by switching to metal gate and high-k transistors.  Gelsinger claims mature Penryn processors will operate in excess of 3 GHz per core, with 1600 MHz front-side busses on server platforms.

After the 45nm shrink has matured, Intel will then incorporate architectural changes into its processor family, currently dubbed NehalemNehalem is still a 4-issue architecture similar to Core, but new advances in management and scalability give Nehalem its new micro architecture designation.

Earlier this year Intel roadmaps stated Hyper-Threading would appear on some Penryn processors.  Shortly after, Intel retracted the roadmap, stating that simultaneous multi-threading will not reappear until 2008.  This was made evident today when Intel unveiled its next-generation threading plans for Nehalem.

High-end server Nehalem-family processors have eight cores. Coupled with 2-way threading, these processors appear as 16 logical CPUs.  This threading is dynamic: Threads can be powered on and off depending on the application needs.

Dynamic threading isn't the only on-the-fly operation for Nehalem.  Almost everything about Nehalem can be dynamically managed: Power, threads, bus, cache and cores.  This management is primarily a power-saving feature, but also allows for saleable designs as well.

The bulk of these changes are possible due to Nehalem's on-board memory controller.  AMD realized the advantages of integrated memory controllers (IMCs) with the introduction of its Opteron series processors four years ago.  Intel has long toyed with with IMCs on some processors, and will even deliver the Tolapai system-on-a-chip later this year with an integrated memory controller.

Intel's dynamic bus, the Common System Interface (CSI), is clearly a focal point for the Nehalem architecture.  With many respects, CSI is very similar to HyperTransport: Variable, serial interconnects for processor-to-processor communication.  CSI will not only make its debut on Nehalem, but design engineers have also confirmed to DailyTech that CSI will have a large presence on next-generation Itanium platforms as well.

Intel leaves a single teaser in its Nehalem design guidance: "High performance integrated graphics engine for client."  Speaking on background, Intel insiders stated "The majority of the Intel Northbridge is already on the Nehalem die, so adding the final logic to include graphics is essentially [trivial] with the correct bus support."  Intel's renewed interest in graphics processing came just weeks after AMD made similiar announcements, which AMD has codenamed Fusion.

In addition, Intel will also expand the SSE4 instruction set.  Other architectural tweaks include shared multi-level cache.  AMD's upcoming Barcelona processors share L3 cache between cores; Intel's last NetBurst processors shared L3 cache, but no current Core processor utilizes such functionality.

Gelsinger emphasizes that Nehalem is on track for production in 2008.

Intel's "tick tock" strategy doesn't end at the 45nm node.  In 2009 Intel will optically shrink Nehalem process from 45nm to 32nm.  In a sense, it's the same move Intel is currently undertaking with the transition from Conroe to PenrynNehalem's 32nm shrink is dubbed Westmere.  The 32nm architecture that will succeed Westmere is dubbed Gesher.

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By shiznit on 3/28/2007 7:30:09 PM , Rating: -1
looks like i'll be getting a quad-core 12mb cache 45nm intel just in time for xmas and overclocking the $@%^# our of it. once amd is wiped out i feel bad for all of use because intel is gonna start charging premium.

RE: none
By shiznit on 3/28/2007 7:31:15 PM , Rating: 2

RE: none
By StevoLincolnite on 3/29/2007 1:21:26 AM , Rating: 3
AMD will not be wiped out, AMD has good enough ties with OEM's to remain fiscally viable, Which is something that ATI did in the old days of 3dfx Voodoo 1, 2, TNT 1 and 2, Matrox, SiS, S3 Savage, Power VR, ATI Didn't have the Fastest Graphics card on the market, And while several companies were going out of business, ATI held strong ties with OEM's and remained alive, then they came back with a vengance after they released 7500/8500 series, and then blew everyone out of the Water with the Radeon 9500 and 9700 Processors, And yet the 8500 Price performance wiped the floor with the Geforce 4 MX440's back in the day.

So Intel MAY have the best performing Processors, But AMD has ties with OEM's and will be around for a long time to come.

Also... Does anyone know what happened to the graphics company XGI? I remember about the V8 Series of graphics cards, But was never sure of they're performance or how good they're drivers were. I know S3 Came back with they're chrome series of cards... Matrox hasn't released anything since the Parhelia...

*Dribbles* 12MB of CACHE!? I can remember on the pentium 3's when 512k of cache was ALOT! (Before they moved the cache on-die).

RE: none
By Belard on 3/29/2007 3:56:09 AM , Rating: 2
Yeah... the XGI Card with single and dual core cards.

XGI said they'll make profit in 2005 and be world leaders by 2007.... in reality, in 2003 - their $450+ video card was WAY SLOWER than the 5600Ultra & 9600 Pro - which were $150~200 cards. Their $200 (singe chip) version was even slower...

Here's an old Link: ouch, almost 1/3 the performance of the BIG BOYS's $500 cards!

Too bad... more competition is good.

“So far we have not seen a single Android device that does not infringe on our patents." -- Microsoft General Counsel Brad Smith
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