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A view of a 16-qubit processor mounted in its sample holder

A picture of the Orion chip’s sample holder attached to a Leiden Cryogenics dilution fridge

An optical picture of the Orion processor with 16-qubits
Canadian company D-Wave shows off technology that promises to give quantum computing capabilities to mainstream industry

Canadian firm D-Wave Systems unveiled and demonstrated today what it calls “the world's first commercially viable quantum computer.” Company officials announced the technology at the Computer History Museum in Mountain View, California in a demonstration intended to show how the machine can run commercial applications and is better suited to the types of problems that have stymied conventional (digital) computers.

The demonstration of the technology was held at the Computer History Museum, but the actual hardware remained in Burnaby, BC where it was being chilled down to 5 millikelvin, or minus 273.145 degrees Celsius (colder than interstellar space), with liquid helium.

Quantum computers rely on quantum mechanics, the rules that underlie the behavior of all matter and energy, to accelerate computation. It has been known for some time that once some simple features of quantum mechanics are harnessed, machines will be built capable of outperforming any conceivable conventional supercomputer. But D-Wave explains that its new device is intended as a complement to conventional computers, to augment existing machines and their market, not to replace them.

To make the technology commercially applicable, D-Wave used the processes and infrastructure associated with the semiconductor industry. The D-Wave computer, dubbed Orion, is based on a silicon chip containing 16 quantum bits, or “qubits,” which are capable of retaining both binary values of zero and one. The qubits mimic each others’ values allowing for an amplification of their computational power. D-Wave says that its system is scalable by adding multiples of qubits. The company expects to have 32-qubit systems by the end of this year, and as many as 1024-qubit systems by the end of 2008.

"D-Wave's breakthrough in quantum technology represents a substantial step forward in solving commercial and scientific problems which, until now, were considered intractable. Digital technology stands to reap the benefits of enhanced performance and broader application," said Herb Martin, chief executive officer.

Quantum-computer technology can solve what is known as "NP-complete" problems. These are the problems where the sheer volume of complex data and variables prevent digital computers from achieving results in a reasonable amount of time. Such problems are associated with life sciences, biometrics, logistics, parametric database search and quantitative finance, among many other commercial and scientific areas.

As an example, consider the modeling of a nanosized structure, such as a drug molecule, using non-quantum computers. Solving the Schrodinger Equation more than doubles in difficulty for every electron in the molecule. This is called exponential scaling, and prohibits solution of the Schrodinger Equation for systems greater than about 30 electrons. A single caffeine molecule has more than 100 electrons, making it roughly 10^44 times harder to solve than a 30-electron system, which itself makes even high-end supercomputers choke.

Quantum computers are capable of solving the Schrodinger Equation with linear scaling exponentially faster and with exponentially less hardware than conventional computers. For a quantum computers, the difficulty in solving the Schrodinger Equation increases by a small, fixed amount for every electron in a system. Even very primitive quantum computers will be able to outperform supercomputers in simulating nature.

"Quantum technology delivers precise answers to problems that can only be answered today in general terms. This creates a new and much broader dimension of computer applications," Martin said.

"Digital computing delivers value in a wide range of applications to business, government and scientific users. In many cases the applications are computationally simple and in others accuracy is forfeited for getting adequate solutions in a reasonable amount of time. Both of these cases will maintain the status quo and continue their use of classical digital systems," he said.

"It's rational to assume that quantum computers will always contain a digital computing element thereby increasing the amortization of investments already made while expediting the availability of the power of quantum acceleration," he said.

For more technical information quantum computing, read D-Wave founder and CTO Geordie Rose’s blog.



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RE: What they don't tell you
By masher2 (blog) on 2/15/2007 8:44:31 AM , Rating: 3
> "another key part of quantum computing is quantum encription, where its theoretically impossible to break the code regardless of computing power or resources, because attempting to read the data itself fundamentally alters it...."

Allow me to correct a couple things. Quantum encryption isn't "unbreakable"-- its simply impossible to eavesdrop upon without informing the receiver. But that doesn't prevent you from intercepting a message and decrypting it.

Secondly, quantum encryption has little to do with quantum computing per se, especially in the case of machines like this D-Wave prototype, which relies upon quantum tunneling, not the entanglement required for encryption.


RE: What they don't tell you
By emboss on 2/15/2007 11:17:49 AM , Rating: 2
Quantum cryptographic systems (not quantum encryption, since nothing is actually encrypted in a QM way; QM is just used for the key exchange) are unbreakable, for any reasonable definition of the word. The existance of an eavesdropper is known prior to any encrypted information being sent, so unless you're criminally negligent and transmit the message anyhow, you're fine. Eavesdropping simply becomes a DoS attack, which can be done in a much easier fashon by simply cutting the wire (err ... fiber).

Of course, it doesn't stand up to "I hide your reality and substitute my own" MITM attacks either, but since it's impossible to make a system that resists this it doesn't really matter ...

Finally, for completeness, quantum key exchange can be done without entanglement and just using polarizers. Not quite as quantum-funky as using entangled photons, but so far looks to be a lot more practical.


RE: What they don't tell you
By masher2 (blog) on 2/15/2007 11:43:12 AM , Rating: 2
> "Quantum cryptographic systems...are unbreakable"

No, that's the wrong way to view it. We already have an unbreakable cryptographic cipher...the One Time Pad (OTP). The problem is, of course, key distribution, which makes it impractical except in rare cases.

QC is all about key exchange...the only "unbreakable" part is the OTP we already know and use. QC allows keys to be exchanged without fear of 'surreptitious' eavesdropping, which makes OTP much more practical.

However, OTP + QC is only secure if sender and receiver have a means to validate each other. If not, then a MITM attack can still succeed, as you point out. Saying this "doesn't matter" because no system has (as of yet) been unable to resist such an attack just shuffles the blame up a level.

The reality is that, while QC certainly promises a huge step forward in cryptography, its far from a "magic bullet" that will solve all our cryptographic needs.


RE: What they don't tell you
By hubajube on 2/15/2007 1:36:31 PM , Rating: 2
Jesus masher2!!!! You are very well versed in many subjects. Spend your off time buried in books, huh?


RE: What they don't tell you
By emboss on 2/15/2007 1:44:28 PM , Rating: 2
"No, that's the wrong way to view it. We already have an unbreakable cryptographic cipher...the One Time Pad (OTP). The problem is, of course, key distribution, which makes it impractical except in rare cases."

Which is exactly why I used the word "system".

"Saying this "doesn't matter" because no system has (as of yet) been unable to resist such an attack just shuffles the blame up a level."

No, it's acknowledging basic information theoretic limitations. If there is a MITM intercepting all channels and there is no pre-arranged way of verifying the person at the other end, it is simply impossible to have a secure channel. Since this is a limitation of any system, it doesn't matter when talking about the security of a particular system (such as a QKD-based system).

"The reality is that, while QC certainly promises a huge step forward in cryptography, its far from a "magic bullet" that will solve all our cryptographic needs."

The most obvious problem being that QKD isn't really much use for encrypting stored data ...


RE: What they don't tell you
By masher2 (blog) on 2/15/2007 2:02:37 PM , Rating: 4
> "No, it's acknowledging basic information theoretic limitations...

There is no rigorous proof of this. Can I think of a way to prevent such MITM attacks against symmetric encryption? No...but a couple decades ago, most experts would have considered eavesdrop-proof communications to be impossible as well.

And I have to point out that asymmetric cryptography is inherently immune to such an attack. So, in the case where an attacker has the ability to intercept all channels and pose as any user, a public-key system would be more secure than a quantum-based solution.

> "Which is exactly why I used the word "system"...

The point though is that quantum entanglement doesn't make the encryption unbreakable. The OTP does that. All QC gives us is security from surreptitious eavesdropping.


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