Life With "Penryn"
January 27, 2007 12:01 AM
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The first official die shot of "Penryn"
Intel's high-k, metal gate transistors replace the silicon-based elements of the transistor with hafnium and metal composites
Intel confirms new details on "Penryn" family: SSE4, high-k dielectrics, metal gate transistors
A little more than six months ago we wrote an editorial about Intel's future technology after Core 2 Duo, titled "
" Life after
inches closer, but, in the meantime, more details on the architecture are available today.
had the opportunity to chat with Mark Bohr, Intel Senior Fellow, and Steve Smith, Intel Vice President DEG Group Operations, about the upcoming CPU design.
The primary focus of Intel's next-generation process technology is
is the specific codename a 45nm mobile shrink of the
core, but the codename may also be used to describe the entire product family. Early last year Intel announced it would optically shrink to the next process node every two years. Staggered one year later, the company would also announce a new microarchitecture. This philosophy of shrink followed by architecture revision will undergo its first real milestone with the node shrink from 65nm to 45nm
. One year after the 45nm
shrink, Intel is also expected to announce its next-generation microarchitecture successor,
Intel claims the upcoming
will fit 410 million transistors for the dual-core model, and 820 million transistors for the quad-core variants -- dual-core
utilizes just 298 million transistors. Intel's 45nm SRAM shuttle chip, announced last year, had a little over 1 billion transistors and fit on a 119mm^2 package. However, the initial
quad-core processors will use a multi-die packaging, so it's realistic to expect only 410 million transistors per die at launch.
The optical shrink allows the engineers to boost clock speed, but the additional real estate means the company can put more logic on the processor as well. "Most of that transistor savings is spent on increasing the cache over Core 2" added Smith.
added additional SSE instructions at launch, but Intel claimed at Fall IDF 2006 that
SSE4 was specifically reserved for
. Intel's guidance for
claims the family will feature "New Intel SSE4 instructions expand capabilities and performance for media/HPC applications."
When asked about the effects of SSE4 on
Smith responded to
claiming "We're seeing excellent double digit performance [percentage] gains on multimedia applications."
is still not without its mysteries; a primary concern for enthusiasts is motherboard and socket support. Penryn will launch on Socket 775 -- meaning existing motherboards can physically harbor the new CPU, but electrically might not. "Motherboard developers will have to make some minor changes to support [
]. We can't guarantee that a person could just plug the chip into every motherboard on the market today." However, Smith also claimed
boot test that grabbed so many headlines last week
occurred on unmodified hardware that included a notebook, several desktop motherboards and several server motherboards.
The lithography process for
, dubbed P1266, is not just a shrink from 65nm to 45nm. Perhaps the most significant advance on P1266 is the use of high-k dielectrics and metal gate transistors. In a nutshell, the polysilicon gate used on transistors today is replaced with a metal layer and the silicon dioxide dielectric that sits between the substrate and the transistor is replaced by a high-k dielectric.
Intel's push for high-k dielectrics and metal gate transistors may be more significant than the node shrink. Intel's guidance documentation claims with the new high-k dielectric, metal gate transistors offer a 20% increase in current, which can translate to a 20% increase in performance. When the new transistor technologies run at the same current and frequencies as Core 2 Duo processors today, translates to a 5-fold reduction in source-drain leakage and a 10-fold reduction in dielectric leakage.
"The implementation of high-k and metal gate materials marks the biggest change in transistor technology since the introduction of polysilicongate MOS transistors in the late 1960s" claims Gordon Moore, Intel co-founder attributed with coining "Moore's Law."
Intel would not reveal the materials used in its metal gate technology, though Smith announced that the dielectric is hafnium based. Hafnium dioxide has been the leading candidate to replace silicon oxide inside academia for years. A different material is used for PMOS and NMOS gates.
Intel's lithography roadmap no longer ends at P1268, the 32nm node. Earlier today Intel revealed its 22nm node, dubbed 1270, slated for first production in 2011.
Smith closed our conversation with "In 2008, we'll have
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RE: This is pretty funny
1/31/2007 11:39:38 AM
I'll freely admit that I shied away from the 8000 level semiconductor properties course after having gotten through the 5000 level one, so I don't understand quite everything either, lol.
What I find mildly confusing about all the stuff IBM has said is that they're being rather mute on a change to metal gate electrodes. Technically, they'd have a high-k metal gate by simply using hafnium as the gate dielectric and continuing to use poly-Si for the gate electrode. (After all, hafnium is a transition metal.) I'd hope it's simply the press releases dumbing it down that make it seem as such. But the fact that the paper lacks any mention of a metal gate electrode and -does- say that poly-Si is deposited over the metal gates is a tad bit worrysome. Maybe they'll have further information in time, just seems odd that they're not mentioning anything about the gate electrodes really.
RE: This is pretty funny
2/6/2007 11:30:27 PM
Some more details are reported in another paper at the 2004 VLSI symposium on VLSI Technology "Thermally robust dual-work function ALD-MNx MOSFETs using conventional CMOS process flow".
The metal gate (TaN for N, WN for P) is thin (~10 nm) and deposited by ALD. The polysilicon is needed to be on top to enhance the thermal stability. I also know it shields the gate dielectric better from lithography radiation; the metal is too thin.
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