backtop


Print 97 comment(s) - last by flipsu5.. on Feb 6 at 11:30 PM


The first official die shot of "Penryn"

Intel's high-k, metal gate transistors replace the silicon-based elements of the transistor with hafnium and metal composites
Intel confirms new details on "Penryn" family: SSE4, high-k dielectrics, metal gate transistors

A little more than six months ago we wrote an editorial about Intel's future technology after Core 2 Duo, titled "Life After Conroe."  Life after Conroe inches closer, but, in the meantime, more details on the architecture are available today.

DailyTech had the opportunity to chat with Mark Bohr, Intel Senior Fellow, and Steve Smith, Intel Vice President DEG Group Operations, about the upcoming CPU design.

The primary focus of Intel's next-generation process technology is PenrynPenryn is the specific codename a 45nm mobile shrink of the Conroe core, but the codename may also be used to describe the entire product family.  Early last year Intel announced it would optically shrink to the next process node every two years.  Staggered one year later, the company would also announce a new microarchitecture.  This philosophy of shrink followed by architecture revision will undergo its first real milestone with the node shrink from 65nm to 45nm Penryn.  One year after the 45nm Penryn shrink, Intel is also expected to announce its next-generation microarchitecture successor, Nehalem

Intel claims the upcoming Penryn will fit 410 million transistors for the dual-core model, and 820 million transistors for the quad-core variants -- dual-core Conroe utilizes just 298 million transistors.  Intel's 45nm SRAM shuttle chip, announced last year, had a little over 1 billion transistors and fit on a 119mm^2 package.  However, the initial Penryn quad-core processors will use a multi-die packaging, so it's realistic to expect only 410 million transistors per die at launch.

The optical shrink allows the engineers to boost clock speed, but the additional real estate means the company can put more logic on the processor as well. "Most of that transistor savings is spent on increasing the cache over Core 2" added Smith.

Conroe added additional SSE instructions at launch, but Intel claimed at Fall IDF 2006 that SSE4 was specifically reserved for Nehalem.  Intel's guidance for Penryn claims the family will feature "New Intel SSE4 instructions expand capabilities and performance for media/HPC applications."

When asked about the effects of SSE4 on Penryn, Smith responded to DailyTech claiming "We're seeing excellent double digit performance [percentage] gains on multimedia applications."

Penryn is still not without its mysteries; a primary concern for enthusiasts is motherboard and socket support.  Penryn will launch on Socket 775 -- meaning existing motherboards can physically harbor the new CPU,  but electrically might not. "Motherboard developers will have to make some minor changes to support [Penryn]. We can't guarantee that a person could just plug the chip into every motherboard on the market today."  However, Smith also claimed the Penryn boot test that grabbed so many headlines last week occurred on unmodified hardware that included a notebook, several desktop motherboards and several server motherboards.

The lithography process for Penryn, dubbed P1266, is not just a shrink from 65nm to 45nm.  Perhaps the most significant advance on P1266 is the use of high-k dielectrics and metal gate transistors.  In a nutshell, the polysilicon gate used on transistors today is replaced with a metal layer and the silicon dioxide dielectric that sits between the substrate and the transistor is replaced by a high-k dielectric. 

Intel's push for high-k dielectrics and metal gate transistors may be more significant than the node shrink.  Intel's guidance documentation claims with the new high-k dielectric, metal gate transistors offer a 20% increase in current, which can translate to a 20% increase in performance.  When the new transistor technologies run at the same current and frequencies as Core 2 Duo processors today, translates to a 5-fold reduction in source-drain leakage and a 10-fold reduction in dielectric leakage.

"The implementation of high-k and metal gate materials marks the biggest change in transistor technology since the introduction of polysilicongate MOS transistors in the late 1960s" claims Gordon Moore, Intel co-founder attributed with coining "Moore's Law."

Intel would not reveal the materials used in its metal gate technology, though Smith announced that the dielectric is hafnium based.  Hafnium dioxide has been the leading candidate to replace silicon oxide inside academia for years.  A different material is used for PMOS and NMOS gates.

Intel's lithography roadmap no longer ends at P1268, the 32nm node.  Earlier today Intel revealed its 22nm node, dubbed 1270, slated for first production in 2011. 

Smith closed our conversation with "In 2008, we'll have Nehalem."


Comments     Threshold


This article is over a month old, voting and posting comments is disabled

RE: Why use high-k?
By Khato on 1/27/2007 7:23:21 PM , Rating: 2
Yes, it is way bigger. About 96 million of the transistor count increase is from the extra 2MB L2 cache, leaving 23 million for L1 and core logic changes. As I'm certain you know, the L2 transistors have minimal power impact, so most of the size difference isn't going to do much with respect to power.

I no need to comment much on the validity of the link provided, seeing as how it says right in the link 'editorial' and it's a subscription required site. I far prefer scouring around for information from the source, it's not that difficult to do.


RE: Why use high-k?
By flipsu5 on 1/27/2007 8:20:20 PM , Rating: 2
quote:
I no need to comment much on the validity of the link provided, seeing as how it says right in the link 'editorial' and it's a subscription required site. I far prefer scouring around for information from the source, it's not that difficult to do.


It was a pro-Core architecture article. Not likely to try to put down the new processors. But you may want to translate this:
http://www.matbe.com/actualites/commenter/15262/in...


RE: Why use high-k?
By Khato on 1/28/2007 4:48:49 AM , Rating: 2
Well, I am quite curious as to where they got that TDP figure - heh, as with so many 'Intel confidential' things it shouldn't be known yet.

Anyway, going from 75 watts at 3 GHz to 57 watts at 4 GHz isn't a power decrease? Oh, and I believe that slide from IDF was in terms of constant performance or frequency purrhaps.


RE: Why use high-k?
By flipsu5 on 1/28/2007 5:50:38 AM , Rating: 2
In the first link, the TDP for Penryn was cited as 35 W which is same as Merom. That was what I referred to earlier.

The TDP is independent of GHz, keeping in mind that TDP is not an actual power figure but a power design spec.


RE: Why use high-k?
By Khato on 1/28/2007 2:49:47 PM , Rating: 2
Ahhhh, quite true, quite true. I tend to associate the entire line with the mobile codename. But if you're talking about -just- the mobile processors, then sure, they aren't decreasing TDP. It's a thermal design spec that usually applies most accurately to the top frequency part, typically not lowered for the rest in order to encourage one cooling solution for the entire line. Which is why Penryn isn't lowering the TDP - far more friendly in the laptop space to not have to do a redesign, and especially to be able to use a Merom in a laptop designed for Penryn.

That interoperability isn't quite as important in desktop/server space as is getting the cost of cooling solutions down further. Hence those thermal guidelines are far more in line with the actual characteristics.


“So far we have not seen a single Android device that does not infringe on our patents." -- Microsoft General Counsel Brad Smith

Related Articles
Intel 45nm "Penryn" Tape-Out Runs Windows
January 10, 2007, 2:13 AM
Intel Hints at SSE4
September 27, 2006, 4:00 PM
Intel Life After "Conroe"
June 20, 2006, 12:38 PM













botimage
Copyright 2014 DailyTech LLC. - RSS Feed | Advertise | About Us | Ethics | FAQ | Terms, Conditions & Privacy Information | Kristopher Kubicki