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The first official die shot of "Penryn"

Intel's high-k, metal gate transistors replace the silicon-based elements of the transistor with hafnium and metal composites
Intel confirms new details on "Penryn" family: SSE4, high-k dielectrics, metal gate transistors

A little more than six months ago we wrote an editorial about Intel's future technology after Core 2 Duo, titled "Life After Conroe."  Life after Conroe inches closer, but, in the meantime, more details on the architecture are available today.

DailyTech had the opportunity to chat with Mark Bohr, Intel Senior Fellow, and Steve Smith, Intel Vice President DEG Group Operations, about the upcoming CPU design.

The primary focus of Intel's next-generation process technology is PenrynPenryn is the specific codename a 45nm mobile shrink of the Conroe core, but the codename may also be used to describe the entire product family.  Early last year Intel announced it would optically shrink to the next process node every two years.  Staggered one year later, the company would also announce a new microarchitecture.  This philosophy of shrink followed by architecture revision will undergo its first real milestone with the node shrink from 65nm to 45nm Penryn.  One year after the 45nm Penryn shrink, Intel is also expected to announce its next-generation microarchitecture successor, Nehalem

Intel claims the upcoming Penryn will fit 410 million transistors for the dual-core model, and 820 million transistors for the quad-core variants -- dual-core Conroe utilizes just 298 million transistors.  Intel's 45nm SRAM shuttle chip, announced last year, had a little over 1 billion transistors and fit on a 119mm^2 package.  However, the initial Penryn quad-core processors will use a multi-die packaging, so it's realistic to expect only 410 million transistors per die at launch.

The optical shrink allows the engineers to boost clock speed, but the additional real estate means the company can put more logic on the processor as well. "Most of that transistor savings is spent on increasing the cache over Core 2" added Smith.

Conroe added additional SSE instructions at launch, but Intel claimed at Fall IDF 2006 that SSE4 was specifically reserved for Nehalem.  Intel's guidance for Penryn claims the family will feature "New Intel SSE4 instructions expand capabilities and performance for media/HPC applications."

When asked about the effects of SSE4 on Penryn, Smith responded to DailyTech claiming "We're seeing excellent double digit performance [percentage] gains on multimedia applications."

Penryn is still not without its mysteries; a primary concern for enthusiasts is motherboard and socket support.  Penryn will launch on Socket 775 -- meaning existing motherboards can physically harbor the new CPU,  but electrically might not. "Motherboard developers will have to make some minor changes to support [Penryn]. We can't guarantee that a person could just plug the chip into every motherboard on the market today."  However, Smith also claimed the Penryn boot test that grabbed so many headlines last week occurred on unmodified hardware that included a notebook, several desktop motherboards and several server motherboards.

The lithography process for Penryn, dubbed P1266, is not just a shrink from 65nm to 45nm.  Perhaps the most significant advance on P1266 is the use of high-k dielectrics and metal gate transistors.  In a nutshell, the polysilicon gate used on transistors today is replaced with a metal layer and the silicon dioxide dielectric that sits between the substrate and the transistor is replaced by a high-k dielectric. 

Intel's push for high-k dielectrics and metal gate transistors may be more significant than the node shrink.  Intel's guidance documentation claims with the new high-k dielectric, metal gate transistors offer a 20% increase in current, which can translate to a 20% increase in performance.  When the new transistor technologies run at the same current and frequencies as Core 2 Duo processors today, translates to a 5-fold reduction in source-drain leakage and a 10-fold reduction in dielectric leakage.

"The implementation of high-k and metal gate materials marks the biggest change in transistor technology since the introduction of polysilicongate MOS transistors in the late 1960s" claims Gordon Moore, Intel co-founder attributed with coining "Moore's Law."

Intel would not reveal the materials used in its metal gate technology, though Smith announced that the dielectric is hafnium based.  Hafnium dioxide has been the leading candidate to replace silicon oxide inside academia for years.  A different material is used for PMOS and NMOS gates.

Intel's lithography roadmap no longer ends at P1268, the 32nm node.  Earlier today Intel revealed its 22nm node, dubbed 1270, slated for first production in 2011. 

Smith closed our conversation with "In 2008, we'll have Nehalem."

Comments     Threshold

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By penter on 1/27/2007 6:36:06 AM , Rating: 2
I thought that AMD allready had that technology. High-k just seems to ring a bell to me.

RE: high-k?
By DallasTexas on 1/27/2007 9:39:25 AM , Rating: 2
Yep, AMD has hi-K dielectric. They just have to spin their marketing messages that they have "Hyper- Dielectric".

It's all found here.

RE: high-k?
By SexyK on 1/27/2007 10:44:29 AM , Rating: 2
Uhh, that article explicitly says that AMD will not be using a high-k dielectric. In response to Penter's original post, you are thinking of low-k dielectrics. AMD introduced the use of low-k dielectrics along with its SOI implementation with the 130nm process. See question number 9 here: and also further explanation here:

AMD has never used high-k materials, and apparently is not planning on using high-k materials any time soon.

RE: high-k?
By KristopherKubicki on 1/27/2007 10:52:57 AM , Rating: 3
Keep in mind, the low-k dielectrics are only for interconnects. High-k are used in transistors.

RE: high-k?
By SexyK on 1/27/2007 11:42:28 AM , Rating: 2
Understood - I did not mean to imply that AMD was using low-k dielectrics in the same manner Intel is incorporating high-k dielectrics. Was only responding to the comment that "high-k rang a bell" for the OP, and suggesting that he was probably recalling AMD's use of low-k dielectrics beginning with their 130nm process. Haven't had time to read all the announcements yet, but now it appears that perhaps AMD/IBM's new "ultra-low-k" process is similar to Intel's High-k, so I may have to correct myself in saying that AMD won't be using this technology if that proves to be true.

RE: high-k?
By JackPack on 1/27/2007 4:06:35 PM , Rating: 2
The two are not similiar at all. High-k dielectrics is for the transistor gates. Low-k is used to lower the capacitance between wires. You want the transistor gates to behave as much like a capacitor as possible and the wires to _not_ behave as capacitors. Hence, both high- and low-k dielectrics are important. IBM just announced news about high-k, but the window of opportunity for AMD has probably closed and their implementation of it isn't likely to occur until 32nm.

RE: high-k?
By Viditor on 1/28/2007 5:29:41 AM , Rating: 1
the window of opportunity for AMD has probably closed and their implementation of it isn't likely to occur until 32nm

I believe the article specifically states that they will be implemented in 45nm along with the ultra-low-k for the interconnects.

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