It's Very Likely Neanderthals and Humans Had Sex, Produced Offspring
April 10, 2014 8:40 PM
comment(s) - last by
New study offers strong genetic evidence in support of the hypothesis that humans and their close kin hooked up
sequencing of the Neanderthals (
, we discovered that 1 to 4 percent of genes of humans (
) matched those found in Neanderthals. Notably, matching genes suggested Neanderthals
likely were fair skinned with blond/red hair
, while humans at the time appeared to mostly have dark skin and black/brown hair.
The hot question in the aftermath of that sequencing was whether these similarities occurred spontaneously or
whether they were the result of our ancestors getting it on
, technically speaking, with Neanderthals.
The interbreeding hypothesis is attractive due to geography if nothing else. Namely, the locations with the last surviving Neanderthal populations (Scandinavia, the English isles) also happen to have the most prevalent rate of Neanderthal appearance genes (fair skin, blond/red hair) of anywhere in the world.
We felt this particular hypothesis to be quite compelling. That Neanderthal glancing at you across the campfire might look a little odd at first, what with her fair skin, auburn hair, and angular cheekbones. But get a couple of Stone Age beers in you and she starts to look like a perfect 10.
Stone Age beer likely played a key role in human and Neanderthal hook ups.
[Image Source: Asle Rønning]
Now evolutionary geneticists with the
University of Edinburgh
(Netherlands) have published
an impressive study
in the peer-reviewed journal
that indicates that's indeed how the genetic similarity likely arose.
The new study comes in response to
a 2012 study
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
University of Cambridge
. That study acknowledged the interbreeding possibility, but argued in favor of an alternative -- sustained substructure. According to that theory, certain subpopulation of each group retained traits, or evolved traits in parallel, via random mutations.
Professor Laurent Frantz
of Wageningen University calls that idea "unparsimonious" (too theoretically complex/violating Occam's razor). He and his UK colleague did a more thorough analysis of
known human mutation rates
, plus looked at population distribution and other factors. The results, he states, show a resounding win for the interbreeding hypothesis, while leaving the door open to the possibility that some common genes did come from sustained substructure.
Likely not a coincidence: apparently Neanderthals looked a lot like Chuck Norris.
[Image Source: BBC]
Professor Frantz was the study's senior author, UK Professor Konrad Lohse was the first author. Professor Frantz
We did a bunch of math to compute the likelihood of two different scenarios. We were able to do that by dividing the genome in small blocks of equal lengths from which we inferred genealogy.
Our analysis shows that a model that involves interbreeding is much more likely than a model where there was sustained substructure in Africa. [Substained substructure might have contributed to genetic commonality] but it cannot be used to explain the genetic similarities [alone].
There seemed to be something that has gone wrong [in that study] because it seems unparsimonious... When we tested two hypotheses, we got a high support for a scenario where humans and Neanderthals interbred.
There have been a lot of arguments about what happened to these species. Some think that we outcompeted [other hominins] or that they were killed by humans, but now we can see that it's not that simple. Human evolution is much more complex than we previously thought.
In other words, why would early man, struggling to survive against nature and competing tribes, waste resources on killing and driving out Neanderthals? They could instead ally with them,
recruiting the close relative to join the tribe
Geneticist Svante Pääbo, one of the men who helped sequence the Neanderthal genome peers at the fossilized remains of his possible ancestor. [Image Source: Frank Vinken]
It's a compelling notion indeed. So crack open a cold beer; chances are your ancestors were doing the same on one fateful night some 500,000 years ago. Thanks to them, now that Neanderthal isn't just your close phylogenetic kin, it's also your direct ancestor.
This article is over a month old, voting and posting comments is disabled
RE: Not News
4/15/2014 4:09:33 PM
Bet you wish you could edit or delete that comment, don't you? LOL
"It looks like the iPhone 4 might be their Vista, and I'm okay with that." -- Microsoft COO Kevin Turner
Neanderthal-Human Breeding Was Hard, But Yielded Benefits
January 31, 2014, 4:48 PM
Paper Suggests Neanderthals Could Speak
July 15, 2013, 6:23 AM
Supreme Court Gives Mixed Verdict on Patenting Human Genes
June 13, 2013, 2:00 PM
Neanderthal Genome is Finished and Free
March 21, 2013, 8:11 AM
Neanderthal Sex Gave Europeans and Asians Stronger Immune Systems
August 26, 2011, 4:20 PM
Creationists are Mad About Google Doodle Depicting Evolution
November 24, 2015, 8:48 PM
DHS and TSA: Whoops, We Missed That 73 Airport Employees May be Terrorists
November 19, 2015, 2:16 PM
Star Wars Spinoff Film "Rogue One", Theme Park Attractions Announced
August 17, 2015, 12:20 PM
SpaceX Falcon 9's Seventh Supply Mission to ISS Ends w/ Fiery Stage 1 Explosion
June 28, 2015, 1:10 PM
Cool Science Video: Glowing Millipede Prowls the Nevada Desert
May 18, 2015, 12:00 PM
Newly Discovered Costa Rican Glass Frog is Kermit's Doppelgänger
April 22, 2015, 11:26 AM
Latest Blog Posts
Sceptre Airs 27", 120 Hz. 1080p Monitor/HDTV w/ 5 ms Response Time for $220
Dec 3, 2014, 10:32 PM
Costco Gives Employees Thanksgiving Off; Wal-Mart Leads "Black Thursday" Charge
Oct 29, 2014, 9:57 PM
"Bear Selfies" Fad Could Turn Deadly, Warn Nevada Wildlife Officials
Oct 28, 2014, 12:00 PM
The Surface Mini That Was Never Released Gets "Hands On" Treatment
Sep 26, 2014, 8:22 AM
ISIS Imposes Ban on Teaching Evolution in Iraq
Sep 17, 2014, 5:22 PM
More Blog Posts
Copyright 2016 DailyTech LLC. -
Terms, Conditions & Privacy Information