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Communication between the cell's nucleus and mitochondria is key

A new study shows that communication between a cell's nucleus and mitochondria is essential in warding off the negatives that come with aging, such as disease. 
 
According to Science Daily, helping to rebuild the broken communication between the nucleus and mitochondria has proven to reverse signs of aging in mammals (more specifically, mice). The study was led by Harvard Medical School Professor of Genetics David Sinclair and Ana Gomes, a postdoctoral scientist in the Sinclair lab.
 
The initial problem is that mitochondria (a cell's powerhouse that creates chemical energy) become increasingly dysfunctional over time leading to diseases like diabetes. The self-contained mitochondria, which have their own small genomes, have been linked to aging before. 
 
Up until now, it was believed that aging can't be reversed because mutations in mitochondrial DNA cause age-related illnesses like Alzheimer's disease, and mutations can't be undone. 
 
But the latest study focused on an important group of genes genes called sirtuins, and one of these genes -- SIRT1 -- is activated by a compound called resveratrol. When SIRT1 was removed, the mice certainly showed signs of aging, but the team was surprised to find that most mitochondrial proteins coming from the cell's nucleus remained at normal levels. Only those from the mitochondrial genome had decreased.
 
They saw that communication between the two was broken and accelerating age-related illnesses as a result. To correct it, they focused on a chemical called NAD, which keeps SIRT1 in check. SIRT1s job is to keep a molecule called HIF-1 away, which messes with communication between the nucleus and mitochondria. So if SIRT1 doesn't have enough NAD, it loses its ability to keep HIF-1 away and it destroys communication. 
 
Without this communication, cell is unable to create energy and signs of aging occur. 
 
The research team then used an endogenous compound that cells transform into NAD on two-year-old mice. After just one week, their tissue looked like that of six-month-old mice. 
 
This repaired the broken communication and restored communication and mitochondrial function. The study states that giving this compound early enough (before excessive mutation accumulation) some aging could be reversed. It could also open up some doors and answer questions as to why cancer risk increases with age. 
 
This isn't the first time Harvard researchers have worked on age reversal techniques. In 2010, Ronald DePinho, leader of the study and a scientist at Harvard Medical School, along with a group of Harvard researchers, discovered that an anti-aging therapy called telomere shortening has the potential to eliminate age-related issues like dementia and heart disease by rejuvenating old, worn out organs. 

Source: Science Daily



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RE: Sad pursuit
By Monkey's Uncle on 12/26/2013 8:20:28 PM , Rating: 2
Why not?

Why can't we be fit and healthy while eating chocolate chip cookies and sitting in front of a computer all day?

Seems to me the human body is horribly inefficient if it can't make the best use of whatever fuel is put into it whether it is a lean chicken breast or a black forest cake.

As well, muscles should not need to be constantly torn down and rebuilt in order to remain healthy - I mean seriously! Doesn't see that as inefficient? What is healthy about straining your muscles in the first place?

Well rested muscle should have more capacity for work when needed!


RE: Sad pursuit
By Apone on 12/27/2013 1:15:03 AM , Rating: 2
@ DaveLessnau and Monkey’s Uncle
quote:
Why can't we be fit and healthy while eating chocolate chip cookies and sitting in front of a computer all day?

Besides stating the obvious that junk food and a sedentary lifestyle won’t exactly contribute to a healthy lifestyle, it would probably require thousands of years of biological evolution (like Kryptonians) before the human body could perform such a metabolic feat.
quote:
As well, muscles should not need to be constantly torn down and rebuilt in order to remain healthy - I mean seriously! Doesn't see that as inefficient? What is healthy about straining your muscles in the first place?

Well rested muscle should have more capacity for work when needed!

You don’t become good at something by not practicing it over and over again.


RE: Sad pursuit
By Monkey's Uncle on 12/27/2013 10:17:46 AM , Rating: 2
quote:
Besides stating the obvious that junk food and a sedentary lifestyle won’t exactly contribute to a healthy lifestyle, it would probably require thousands of years of biological evolution (like Kryptonians) before the human body could perform such a metabolic feat.


Like I said. Inefficient.

quote:
You don’t become good at something by not practicing it over and over again.


Who is talking about becoming good at anything here? That isn't the definition of fitness, now is it. You don't have to be fit to be good at something. Likewise you don't have to be good at something to be fit.

Without getting into the details I am actually very good at some things and I never had to practice over and over again to be good at it. Why should muscles be any different?

btw -- you I trolled you, right? My entire post was totally rhetorical. ;)


RE: Sad pursuit
By Kiffberet on 12/30/2013 8:43:02 AM , Rating: 1
quote:
Like I said. Inefficient.


The body is actually very EFFICIENT and not inefficient as you think.

If you're starving and skin and bone, then eating loads of food will fatten you up nicely. Once you're 'normal' weight, then eating more will make your body store the nutrients and carbs as fat so you get fatter. All very EFFICIENT.

Inefficient would be eating loads and NOT getting fat, just shitting it all out as waste.

As for muscles - again the body is very efficient. If you exercise, your muscles get fitter and stronger very quickly.
If you stop exercising, you no longer need to support all the muscle, so your body gets rid of it. The remaining muscle learns to be lazy very quickly and efficiently.


RE: Sad pursuit
By NellyFromMA on 12/27/2013 1:00:13 PM , Rating: 2
So, rather than the way evolution actually works, you want to evolve by sitting in front of a monitor treating your body like crap.

Well, the good news is you will evolve. Into a pile of lard. Congrats.


RE: Sad pursuit
By Monkey's Uncle on 12/28/2013 3:03:04 PM , Rating: 2
Why the need for exercise or a specific "healthy" diet? What defines a healthy diet anyway? No fat? Why not fat? Why does our body not burn it like any other fuel and simply pass through what is not needed? Our bodies already burn sugars - both simple and complex. So why not simply pass through what we don't need?

I mean after half a billion years of evolution nature could have gotten it right by now. Right?

Likewise, how is sitting in front of a monitor treating my body like crap? I am not placing undue strain or stresses on it sitting in front of a monitor so it should be able to have a much higher capacity for those stresses when they occur, right?

Why should constantly straining and stressing your body actually good for it? Frankly this is another place that half a billion years of evolution seems to have failed.

Oh, and Nelly, consider yourself trolled as well. Cheers!


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