NHTSA: Mass In-Car Alcohol Sensor Deployment is 5 Years Away
August 21, 2013 4:54 PM
Convincing consumers to embrace a device which could raise prices and have false positives is challenging
humanity's favorite social lubricant
, is an ever controversial
calling it the deadliest drug
, and others pointing to studies that
suggest moderate alcohol consumption enhances learning
(perhaps the real-life version of the "Ballmer curve"). But one thing that most can agree on is that
intoxication and cars are a dangerous mixture
I. NHTSA: Five Years to Commercializing Driver Intoxication Detection
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
(NHTSA) -- an agency of the
U.S. Department of Transportation
(DoT) -- has been working a coalition of manufacturers (the
Automotive Coalition for Traffic Safety
produce an advanced in-car sensor
that would refuse to start the vehicle if it detects the driver is intoxicated.
The system they're developing is dubbed "
Driver Alcohol Detection System for safety
" (DADSS) -- perhaps a well intentioned play on the nation's largest anti-drunk driving activist organization
Mothers Against Drunk Driving
The government and activist groups want to make sure a drunk driver can never get in a car and drive in the first place. [Image Source: CNN]
After nearly $40 USD in federal funding ($5.8M USD in 2008, $2M USD/yr. in 2009-2010, and ~$10M USD in 2011-2013) and five years of progress, that project is approaching the end of its first phase, and a technology demonstration has been promised.
to the CEO of top automotive manufacturers, NHTSA Chief David Strickland said that significant progress had been made on the private-public collaboration. With two "very, very effective" prototypes from separate OEM partners produced, he believes a commercial product is within reach. On how soon we will see such a device, he comments, "We probably have another five years of work to go. It will be available as an option by manufacturers, and I think it’s a real way forward."
Why build such a device? The motivation is actually surprisingly straightforward.
from 2010 reveal that drunk driving is the number one crime in the country, with 1.4 million driving under the influence (DUI) or driving while intoxicated (DWI) arrests a year. Of fatal car crashes approximately half of the drivers involved were under the influence of alcohol or other psychoactive substances.
To try to curb drunk driving, the government by 2009 had instituted nearly 150,000
in-car interlock systems
] to habitual DUI offenders. An interlock system won't allow a vehicle to start without having the user perform
a breathalyzer test
Drunk driving remains the nation's most common crime and a key factor in roughly half of car crashes. [Image Source: DWI Blog]
While functional, interlock systems are far from perfect. First, if a non-drunk passenger (or even companion riding separately) blows into them, they can start the car, even if the driver is drunk. Second, they are too expensive and invasive to deploy to all vehicles.
One solution would be to have a more general alcohol detector that scanned the entire air content of the car, but again this would be problematic as drunk passengers could trigger a false positive. And such a solution would be more expensive, likely, as it would require the detection of smaller quantities of airborne alcohol versus a system that isolates a driver's breath (e.g. the interlock).
From a big picture perspective, the number of people in the U.S. still choosing to drive drunk and being able to do so clearly illustrates that the deterrents to date -- DUI fines, prison time, and in-car prevention systems -- aren't stopping drunk drivers often enough.
II. Show Me The Prototype
The NHTSA/industry program launched in 2008, with $5.8M USD in federal funding. It has
focused on two different emerging technologies
near-infrared (NIR) tissue spectroscopy
and distant breath spectroscopy. The former technique would require the driver to press their finger against a location. Eventually this could perhaps be embedded into the steering wheel. The latter method would be remote, requiring no direct contact as it measures the amount of alcohol in the exhaled breath from a distance. Differentiating between driver and passenger intoxication, though, requires strategic sensor placement, multiple sensors, and filtering algorithms.
After five years Congress is still funding the program, but desires some sort of results. Mr. Strickland has promised a working prototype will be demonstrated by the end of the year. He comments, "A tangible result of that work will be demonstrated later this year, when a research vehicle including both touch-based and breath-based detection technologies is available for further evaluation. I have referred to it as a ‘moonshot’ for traffic safety with initially long odds but the potential for dramatically powerful results if we are successful."
Working prototypes are expensive, bulky, intrusive, and can yield false positives. (The DADSS "TruTouch" tisue NIR spectroscopy system is shown.)
If the NHTSA and ACTS can pull of a successful demo, they next have to plan out and agree to a path for Phase II -- the path to commercialization. MADD National President Jan Withers praised the progress thus far, stating, "Driver Alcohol Detection System for Safety, DADSS for short, is our hope for the future to ELIMINATE drunk driving."
That said, figuring out a route to commercialization requires many parties -- automakers, insurers, consumers, civil liberties groups, activist groups (e.g. MADD), and the government -- to all agree to a route they can all live with. Balancing often competing interests (e.g. the desire to reduce auto fatalities versus the consumer demand to not have a device that produces false positives or raises vehicle prices) makes this project a "moonshot" indeed. But it'll be interesting to watch what the coalition brings to the table as Phase I concludes.
The Detroit News
"There is a single light of science, and to brighten it anywhere is to brighten it everywhere." -- Isaac Asimov
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