Neanderthal Genome is Finished and Free
March 21, 2013 8:11 AM
comment(s) - last by
DNA comes from sequencing of Neanderthal toe-bone found in Siberia
Three years after an international team of experts led by researchers at the
Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology
in Leipzig, Germany published a
"draft" of the genome of
(commonly known as the "Neanderthal"), the team has
with a higher-quality "finished" map of the genome.
I. Getting to Know Our Neighbors, Distant Ancestors
Neanderthals are one of mankind's closest relatives. Neanderthals and modern man (
) are though to have diverged from a common ancestor around 350,000 years ago. That ancestor is thought to have evolved into humans in Africa, but into Neanderthals in Europe. Another close relative, Denisovans, are thought to have diverged slightly earlier in Asia.
Nonetheless, humans and these relatives would eventually reunite and even have
intimate sexual relationships
, which led to some modern humans bearing pieces of Neanderthal/Denisovan DNA.
These "donations" from our close relatives are thought to have endowed people of European or Asian descent with hardier immune systems.
The DNA for the sequenced Neanderthal genome comes from a toe-bone found in the Denisova cave in southern Siberia.
[Image Source: Current Biology/Science]
That cave is also home to preserved human and Denisovan remains; in fact the Denisovan remains are being used to carry out a similar sequencing project on that genome.
II. Contamination, Region Variance Leave Picture Only Mostly Complete
, a geneticist who led the research, wrote in
, "The genome of a Neanderthal is now there in a form as accurate as that of any person walking the streets today."
Or it is for the Altal Neanderthals, at least. Much like modern man, where people from different areas developed unique genetic makeups, Neanderthals are hypothesized to have subtle regional differences in their genomes.
, it is misleading to suggest that the genome is a "complete" genome for the entirety of the Neanderthal population that once inhabited Europe, Asia, and the Middle East. Rather, the Neanderthal genome represents a finished/complete picture of the Neanderthals in
Scientists think that the Altal branch of the "family tree" is complete with the finished sequencing. [Image Source: MPI]
Professor Paabo is preparing a paper on the work. He enthuses, "We will gain insights into many aspects of the history of both Neanderthals and Denisovans, and refine our knowledge about the genetic changes that occurred in the genomes of modern humans after they parted ways with the ancestors of Neanderthals and Denisovan."
The finished genome is
in "BAM" format, with chromosome file sizes ranging from 1.9-13 GB a piece, depending on the size, except for the small 'Y' chromosome, which is only 331 MB.
One other way that the genome is somewhat incomplete is contamination. Analysis showed that approximately 1 percent of the DNA in the sample was contamination from the cave's later human residents. Those gaps -- and the variations between Neanderthals in different regions -- will have to be filled in with future gene studies.
This article is over a month old, voting and posting comments is disabled
RE: The French...
3/21/2013 6:42:04 PM
The article states clearly its by region, and the bone was found see map in that region.
Not carved out to a specific race other then how most races are set via regions.
Read more close its not a global idea, it says for the region it was located in for that time frame.
RE: The French...
3/21/2013 6:49:28 PM
He was refering to the chart of various regional varieties of each species, specifically the homo sapien side, which is not discussed at all in this article. So the article has nothing to do with his comment that the french are their own "regional" variety of homo sapien, that he saw on the chart which is based completly on the frequency of similar traits / genes.
"I want people to see my movies in the best formats possible. For [Paramount] to deny people who have Blu-ray sucks!" -- Movie Director Michael Bay
Neanderthal Sex Gave Europeans and Asians Stronger Immune Systems
August 26, 2011, 4:20 PM
Neanderthal Genome Complete; Provides Evidence of Evolution, Interbreeding
May 7, 2010, 10:47 AM
Star Wars Spinoff Film "Rogue One", Theme Park Attractions Announced
August 17, 2015, 12:20 PM
SpaceX Falcon 9's Seventh Supply Mission to ISS Ends w/ Fiery Stage 1 Explosion
June 28, 2015, 1:10 PM
Cool Science Video: Glowing Millipede Prowls the Nevada Desert
May 18, 2015, 12:00 PM
Newly Discovered Costa Rican Glass Frog is Kermit's Doppelgänger
April 22, 2015, 11:26 AM
Researchers Hope to Find "Exotic" Lifeforms Inside Crater of Dinosaur Killing Meteor
April 14, 2015, 8:47 PM
Mathematician's Sociological Formulation May Explain the "Hipster Paradox"
April 14, 2015, 1:13 PM
Most Popular Articles
Kentucky Man Faces up to 10 Years in Prison for Shooting Drone Trespasser
August 13, 2015, 2:58 PM
Windows 10 Hits 75 Million Users; Grows Nearly 4x as Fast as Windows 7
August 28, 2015, 10:22 PM
Best Buy Rapidly Ramps up Apple Watch Rollout After "Strong" Early Sales
August 26, 2015, 11:42 AM
Microsoft's Windows 10 Leaves Lumia 530 Behind w/ 8 GB Storage Requirement
August 25, 2015, 4:02 PM
Future of Lumia Uncertain as Microsoft Lays Off 2,300, Closes 1 of 3 Finnish Offices
August 24, 2015, 6:14 PM
Latest Blog Posts
Sceptre Airs 27", 120 Hz. 1080p Monitor/HDTV w/ 5 ms Response Time for $220
Dec 3, 2014, 10:32 PM
Costco Gives Employees Thanksgiving Off; Wal-Mart Leads "Black Thursday" Charge
Oct 29, 2014, 9:57 PM
"Bear Selfies" Fad Could Turn Deadly, Warn Nevada Wildlife Officials
Oct 28, 2014, 12:00 PM
The Surface Mini That Was Never Released Gets "Hands On" Treatment
Sep 26, 2014, 8:22 AM
ISIS Imposes Ban on Teaching Evolution in Iraq
Sep 17, 2014, 5:22 PM
More Blog Posts
Copyright 2015 DailyTech LLC. -
Terms, Conditions & Privacy Information