China Plans Fifth Manned Space Mission as U.S. Still Lacks Domestic Option
November 12, 2012 3:44 PM
comment(s) - last by
Dragon may eventually provide solace to U.S. manned space efforts
While highly anecdotal, an example of the arguably shifting balance of global power can be observed in the fact that China is now regularly sending astronauts into space, while the U.S. is, for the most part,
in terms of
manned space flight
I. China Continues Manned Flight Progress
a fifth manned space mission. Slotted for June 2013, the mission will test an upgraded capsule-type spacecraft, which will be replacing the proven 3-passenger Shenzhou 9.
While crude by space-plane standards, the Shenzhou 9 performed remarkably well, safely ferrying Chinese astronauts (
) into orbit. In June, China sent its first female Taikonaut -- Liu Yang -- into space. She helped the Shenzhou 9 spacecraft
with an orbiting spacelab, which launched in 2011.
China will send more Taikonauts into space in 2013 as it moves towards making its own space station. [Image Source: NPR]
China is also mastering the art of unmanned space flight. In June, its Shenzhou 8 automated capsule-orbiter successfully docked with the
Tiangong-1 space lab
, a Chinese orbiting laboratory that is performing zero gravity experiments on live fish, plants, worms, bacteria, and human cancer cells.
China has plans for an orbiting space station, which will go operation by 2020, and longer term plans of establishing a moon colony. China initially considered joining the
International Space Station
(ISS) effort, but amidst
with the U.S., is currently pursuing plans for its own private rival station.
The Chinese space station is expected to weigh around 60 tons, versus the much larger 400-ton ISS. One major difference in the concept art sketches of the upcoming station, is a reduced solar panel footprint, this hints that the Chinese station may feature less power electronics.
The Chinese space station will be smaller than the iSS with less solar panels.
[Image Source: BBC News]
The unnamed upcoming station will feature two lab modules, a 20-ton central habitation module, and a pair of ports to allow a robotic supply capsule and a manned capsule to simultaneously be docked.
II. Shenzhou vs. Dragon vs. Soyuz vs. Apollo D-2
are similar to the General Electric Comp.'s (
) Apollo mission proposal (D-2), which was similar to the later Russian Soyuz capsule. It should be noted that GE's D-2, Russia's Soyuz, and China's Shenzhou all have slightly different dimensions, suggesting that while they share a common design direction, none of the capsules is a direct "clone" or "copy" of the other [
China's Shenzhou is similar to Soyuz in general design. [Image Source: Wikimedia Commons]
America is currently ferrying astronauts to and from the ISS in Soyuz capsules. It is finally expected to regain its own domestic launch capability sometime between 2015 and 2017, when SpaceX (Space Exploration Technologies Comp.) -- Elon Musk's private startup -- finishes
its human-rated variant of the Dragon capsule
With both China and the U.S. pursuing capsule-based designs, it's interesting to compare and contrast the differences. The main difference is that the Dragon lacks a forward orbital module; limiting the amount of time the crew can spending in orbit. The orbital and reentry modules cumulatively have 14 cubic meters of habitable space (8 in the unshielded orbital module, 6 from the shielded reentry module), versus approximately 10 cubic meters for the Dragon in the single shielded reentry module.
A manned version of the SpaceX Dragon (pictured version is unmanned) will be finished in the new few years. [Image Source: SpaceX/NASA]
The manned variant of the Dragon will be carried aboard a SpaceX Falcon 9 v1.1 rocket (a refreshed version of the current Falcon 9 v1.0) with 5.88 Mega-Newtons of initial thrust. Comparatively the Shenzhou capsules are delivered aboard a Long March 2F rocket, which provides 5.923 Mega-Newtons of thrust (reportedly) upon takeoff.
It's interesting to observe how that despite the differences in design, the final amount of thrust delivered by the rockets is quite similar.
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RE: Launch Center location?
11/12/2012 6:30:48 PM
The equatorial orbit launched from the equator requires the least energy, but you're stuck flying over the equator. These are ideal for geostationary (not just geosynchronous) satellites.
If you want greater coverage of the earth's surface,
like a spy satellite
, you want a more inclined orbit. For equal coverage of 100% of the earth's surface, you need a completely polar orbit (flies over the poles). For a polar orbit, the eastward velocity of an equatorial launch is actually undesirable (you have to burn additional fuel to get rid of it).
But the North and South poles aren't very interesting, and the most effective orbit for coverage is highly inclined but not quite polar. Most of the places people live are about midway between the poles and equator, and a launch from slightly north of that region puts you into an inclined orbit with the greatest loiter time over this region, for the least amount of launch energy.
Other considerations are what's downrange from your launch site. The U.S. does its highly inclined orbit launches from Vandenberb AFB, just northwest of Los Angeles. Launches are to the south, over the Pacific Ocean, which is where debris will fall if the launch fails. There's a NASA Landsat satellite which is supposed to be launched there from an Atlas V in February which I'm planning to go watch.
Equator = launching cheaply
Far north (or south) = spying or surveillance
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