Renegade Drillers Aim for the Earth's Mantle
October 3, 2012 3:32 PM
comment(s) - last by
Project will try to drill down 6 km at the crust's thinnest location in the Pacific Ocean
It sounds like a plot of a science fiction movie. But to
, a geochemistry professor at the UK's
University of Southampton
The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program
" (IODP) co-leader, the ambitious effort to be the first humans to drill to the Earth's mantle is dead serious.
I. The Race to the Mantle
While many have long held that such an effort is infeasible given current technology and the expense involved, Professor Teagle and company hatched a bold scheme to venture out in one of three locations in the Pacific Ocean and use deep-sea drilling equipment to tunnel 6 km (3.7 miles) down, eventually hitting the mantle.
On land the Earth's crust is up to 60 km thick, making drilling to the mantle unlikely to succeed with today's technology. But Professor Teagle is convinced that by using deep sea drilling at one of these locations (ocean ridges) where the crust is the thinnest, the mantle can be reached and sampled for "only" about $1B USD.
The effort will require 10 km-long (6.2 miles) drill pipes to drill through the ultra-hard rocks that are though to surround the mantle.
Croatian meteorologist Andrija Mohorovicic first discovered the Earth’s mantle-crust boundary. The mantle is a 2,900 km layer of the Earth's onion-like composition. Composed mostly of silicon dioxide (the same material that sand or semiconductors are made of), temperatures at the crust border range from 500 to 900 °C (932 to 1,652 °F). The mantle, at its molten inner surface touches the
Earth's molten nickel-iron core
, where temperatures reach 4,000 °C (7,230 °F).
Professor Teagle calls the project "the most challenging endeavor in the history of Earth science", comparing it to
the Apollo Program
. He says the project will serve to "inspire" future generations of scientists and will leave a "legacy of fundamental scientific knowledge" -- namely, giving a never-before-glimpsed look at representative mantle chemistry, temperatures, and pressure. According to Professor Teagle, this would be a big step forward as we currently only have a "reasonable" of the Mantle's composition and behavior.
The hardest challenge will be digging through the hard rocks closest to the mantle.
[Image Source: CNN]
He comments in a
, "[The mantle] is the engine that drives how our planet works and why we have earthquakes and volcanoes and continents. We have the textbook cartoons but detailed knowledge is lacking."
II. No Guarantees
The project will make use of a pre-existing Japanese deep-sea drilling vessel named Chikyu. A hulking, lumbering ship Chikyu can carry up to 10 km of drilling pipes and set a scientific deep sea drilling world-record of 2.2 km in early testing. The hole drilled by the IODP drills will be a mere 30 cm in diameter -- or roughly one foot wide.
The Chikyu, at sea [Image Source: CNN]
Professor Teagle gives some perspective on how much a feat this is, commenting, "It will be the equivalent of dangling a steel string the width of a human hair in the deep end of a swimming pool and inserting it into a thimble 1/10 mm wide on the bottom, and then drilling a few meters into the foundations."
The drill bits will need to be replaced every 50 to 60 hours, and additionally special bits may need to be swapped to drill through ultra-hard near-mantle crust layer. That means the project could take more than a year to complete, unless better drill bits can be produced.
The Chikyu can carry up to 10 km worth of pipes. [Image Source: CNN]
The IODP is not the first effort to drill down to the mantle. The first major attempt dates back to 1966 when a team of U.S. researchers drilled off the coast of the eastern Pacific's Guadalupe Island. The project, dubbed "Project Mohole" in honor or Professor "Mo" Mohorovicic, reached only a few meters before it was abandoned.
A land-based project by the Russians in the 1980s in the Kola Peninsula drilled down 12 km into the Earth's crust, earning a record for deepest borehole that still stands. Exxon Mobil Corp. (
) in 2011 drilled a longer borehole (12+ km) in Easter Russia, however the hole was drilled on an angle.
Thus to summarize how close man has came to drilling to the mantle yet, the best answer is "not very close".
The ocean-based effort clearly provides an easier route that is within historic borehole depths (12 km). However, the difficulties of drilling at sea and of penetrating the hard inner crust make success uncertain, even as Professor Teagle's team forges ahead.
This article is over a month old, voting and posting comments is disabled
RE: Seems like a...
10/3/2012 5:43:02 PM
The crust is just mantle that's been exposed to air/space and allowed to cool. Yes poking a hole down to the liquid mantle could allow a bit of the mantle to escape like a volcano. But if it should somehow get out of control, it will cool and block itself up just like with the rest of the crust.
In terms of risk, you should worry more about tapping into reservoirs of material which does
solidify upon contact with the air.
"I mean, if you wanna break down someone's door, why don't you start with AT&T, for God sakes? They make your amazing phone unusable as a phone!" -- Jon Stewart on Apple and the iPhone
Earth's Outer Core, Rotation, Surface Air Temperature May Explain Climate Change
March 14, 2011, 1:48 PM
Report: U.S. Expected to Lose Lead in Space Race
July 12, 2008, 4:18 AM
Microsoft Co-founder Paul Allen Donates $100M to Fight Raging Ebola Epidemic
October 23, 2014, 6:05 PM
Cool Science Video of the Day: Carnivorous Leech Eats Giant Jungle Worm
October 16, 2014, 6:44 PM
Facebook CEO and Founder, Mark Zuckerberg, Donates $25M to Fight Ebola
October 14, 2014, 5:06 PM
Chagrined Over Leaks, CDC Confirms First U.S. Ebola Diagnosis in Dallas, Texas
September 30, 2014, 5:55 PM
Nail Polish May Soon be Able to Detect Date Rape Drugs
August 26, 2014, 7:57 AM
SpaceX Falcon 9-R Rocket Suffers Malfunction, Self-Destructs During Test Flight
August 23, 2014, 9:36 AM
Most Popular Articles
Chinese Government Declares Digital War Against America's Top Tech Firms
October 20, 2014, 12:07 PM
Report: 2015 Ford Focus Electric MSRP Slashed by $6,000, Will Retail for $29,995
October 18, 2014, 6:23 PM
Apple Releases iOS 8.1; Adds Apple Pay Support, SMS Relay, Instant Hotspot
October 20, 2014, 1:00 PM
Windows 8.1 + Android "Sell Mini PC" w/ Bay Trail Creates New PC Form Factor
October 20, 2014, 5:07 PM
Update: Motorola Droid Turbo Coming Oct 28, 48-hour Battery Life Confirmed
October 19, 2014, 9:19 PM
Latest Blog Posts
The Surface Mini That Was Never Released Gets "Hands On" Treatment
Sep 26, 2014, 8:22 AM
ISIS Imposes Ban on Teaching Evolution in Iraq
Sep 17, 2014, 5:22 PM
Space Terrorism is a Looming Threat For the United States
Apr 23, 2014, 7:47 PM
Facebook Aims to Provide Internet to "Every Person in the World" with Drones, Satellites
Apr 1, 2014, 10:20 AM
Retail Mobile Sites Experience Outages in Light of Simplexity's Bankruptcy
Mar 14, 2014, 8:48 AM
More Blog Posts
Copyright 2014 DailyTech LLC. -
Terms, Conditions & Privacy Information