Texas Scientists Use Mullite Oxide to Clean Diesel Exhaust in Cars
August 20, 2012 5:31 AM
comment(s) - last by
Dr. Kyeongjae Cho, study leader
(Source: UT Dallas)
Mullite replaces platinum, a precious metal that is expensive to mine and limited in supply
University of Texas at Dallas scientists found that a material called mullite, which is from a family of oxides, could replace platinum on diesel exhaust from automotives.
Platinum has been the go-to material for
because diesel exhaust emits more nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxode than gasoline vehicles (however, diesel engines are generally more efficient). To reduce the amount of these pollutants from diesel exhaust, platinum is commonly used.
The problem is that platinum is a precious metal, mainly because it is limited and very expensive to mine. For 10 tons of platinum ore mined, only 1 ounce is usually usable.
Another issue was that diesel engine exhaust was recently added to the
World Health Organization's list of items that are carcinogenic in humans
. Hence, finding an alternative that could clean diesel exhaust up further was pretty important.
Enter Dr. Kyeongjae Cho, study leader and professor of materials science and engineering and physics at UT Dallas. He and a team of researchers set out to find the alternative, and discovered that mullite was exactly what the doctor ordered.
After synthesizing mullite and using computer models to see how it consumes nitric oxide/nitrogen dioxode, it was discovered that an oxygen-based composition of mullite is not only cheaper to produce than platinum, but it also reduces diesel exhaust pollution 45 percent more than platinum.
"Our goal to move completely away from precious metals and replace them with oxides that can be seen commonly in the environment has been achieved," said Cho. "We've found new possibilities to create renewable, clean energy technology by designing new functional materials without being limited by the supply of precious metals."
This new mullite discovery is already being commercialized as Noxicat.
University of Texas at Dallas
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RE: Dontcha Wonder...
8/21/2012 1:03:14 AM
Another serious penalty tax is levied on those who do not marry and contribute at least $4000 a year to a 401k
If you don't have a 401k you pay an extra $2000 a year in income tax.
If you are single and contribute $2000 to a 401k you pay an extra $1800 a year in income tax.
If you are married and both spouses contribute $2000 to their 401ks then you are do not pay this penalty tax.
Of course the law is written to read 10% credit for single taxpayers & 50% credit for married taxpayers on the first $2000 of 401k contributions from each wage earner, but this is actually a penalty paid by anyone who does not contribute annually to a 401k.
It is also a discriminatory tax as gays in most states are not permitted to claim the 50% credit due to state laws forbidding marriage as defined by the IRS.
If the ACA decision had gone the other way, then the tax credit for 401k contributions would have been subject to the decision also. This is just one of many laws & regulations that penalize taxpayers who do not perform some favored action.
The 401k contribution credit is still able to be targeted by use of the Equal Rights laws that on paper forbid the ban on marriage, but that is a different issue entirely.
"We can't expect users to use common sense. That would eliminate the need for all sorts of legislation, committees, oversight and lawyers." -- Christopher Jennings
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