IBM Researchers Observe Theorized Spintronics Feat
August 13, 2012 2:11 PM
comment(s) - last by
Helix pattern is observed by prolonging life of electron spins to about the speed of a mobile processor clock pulse
So-called "zinc-blende" semiconductors (so named due to the zinc-like crystalline structure of III-V semiconductors, rather than the presence of elemental zinc) have seen growing use in recent years. Materials like indium arsenide (InAs) and Gallium arsenide (GaAs) have been used in everything from lasers to thin-film solar cells due to their unique electrical properties.
I. In Search of a Spin
Now International Business Machines, Inc. (
) researchers working at a company-sponsored research center at the
Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich
-- or, ETH Zürich, as the college name is typically shortened -- have managed to discover a new property of this special kind of semiconductor. That property has allowed the team to achieve a major advance
, which could eventually take the
out of the lab and onto the market.
IBM describes the breakthrough in a press release,
A previously unknown aspect of physics, the scientists observed how electron spins move tens of micrometers in a semiconductor with their orientations synchronously rotating along the path similar to a couple dancing the waltz, the famous Viennese ballroom dance where couples rotate.
Dr. Gian Salis of the Physics of Nanoscale Systems research group at IBM Research – Zurich explains, "If all couples start with the women facing north, after a while the rotating pairs are oriented in different directions. We can now lock the rotation speed of the dancers to the direction they move. This results in a perfect choreography where all the women in a certain area face the same direction. This control and ability to manipulate and observe the spin is an important step in the development of spin-based transistors that are electrically programmable."
Left Image: IBM researchers Matthias Walser (left) and Gian Salis (right) pose next to their laboratory apparatus. Righ Image: Professor Salis adjusts an instrument. [Source: IBM/
II. From the Lab to the Pocket: The Road Ahead
Electrons have two key traits -- motion (typically, rotation around an atom) and spin. In a way they're like tiny planets orbitting their equivalent of the sun, in this regard.
Typically electrons rotate in a stochastic fashion, but researchers predicted in 2003 that some semiconductors' electrons could "spin lock" when exposed locally to a magnet field or massaged with laser pulses. But the theorized phenomena had never been observed until now.
IBM's researchers managed to prolong the lifetime of the spins over 30 times using a purified GaAs semiconductor and carefully regulated interactions. That was enough to allow the spins synchronizations to last 1.1 nanoseconds -- or about the speed of a modern smartphone CPU (1 GHz).
Taking advantage of the longer-lived spins the researchers observed the "persistent spin helix", a striped pattern of spin types, using a scanning electron microscope. Spins were seen "waltzing" 10 um along the semiconductor.
The spin-helix, as visualized by IBM engineers. [Image Source: IBM/ETH Zürich]
Spintronics could eventually offer subatomic replacements to both memory storage and processors.
But despite the breakthrough and recent progress in the field, many hurdles remain to marketization. One challenge is squeezing the lasers or micro-magnetics needed to
control the spin
onto tiny semiconductor devices.
Another key hurdle is the temperature. The IBM experiment was performed at a frigid 40 Kelvin (-233 C, -387 F). That's colder than near-boiling liquid nitrogen, which is liquid at 77 K.
The spintronic experiment was performed at a temperature colder than the boiling point of liquid nitrogen. [Image Source: Friday Explosion]
Squeezing spintronics on the mobile devices of the future could give Moore's Law new life by catapaulting computer chips over the
fundamental limits of atomic physics
, into the realm of subatomics. But figuring out how to chill a cell phone CPU to 40 K -- or alternatively how to coax the finnicky electronics to behave and more terrestial temperatures -- is a daunting task.
The paper on the work was published in the prestigious peer-reviewed journal
. The senior author was Gian Salis (IBM), while Matthias Walser (IBM) was the first author. The paper's two other authors are Professor
(ETH Zürich Physics) and
(ETH Zürich Physics Ph.D candidate), who contributed by growing the semiconductor specimens for IBM.
This article is over a month old, voting and posting comments is disabled
RE: Not so fast
8/14/2012 11:15:14 AM
You sure about that?
"DailyTech is the best kept secret on the Internet." -- Larry Barber
Scientists Cook Up 1-Atom Transistor, 12-Atom Magnetic Storage
February 20, 2012, 7:20 PM
Scientists Make Breakthrough in Spintronics
October 28, 2009, 11:56 AM
IBM Cooks Up Replacement For NAND, Hard Drives
April 11, 2008, 11:26 AM
Spintronics Breaks the Silicon Barrier
May 18, 2007, 12:48 AM
"Prepare to be Punished": Microsoft is Killing OneDrive With Cuts, Blames Users
November 3, 2015, 8:23 PM
Apple's New "Magic" Peripheral Line Packs High Tech, High Prices
October 13, 2015, 9:39 PM
Samsung Adds 2 TB 850 EVO, PRO SSDs for $800, $1000
July 7, 2015, 4:23 PM
Seagate Senior Researcher: Heat Can Kill Data on Stored SSDs
May 13, 2015, 2:49 PM
How to Recover Most Apps After Your NVIDIA Driver Crashes in Windows 10
March 30, 2015, 12:54 PM
Tinkerer Gets Old School Mac Plus Running on the Modern Web
March 24, 2015, 6:41 PM
Latest Blog Posts
Sceptre Airs 27", 120 Hz. 1080p Monitor/HDTV w/ 5 ms Response Time for $220
Dec 3, 2014, 10:32 PM
Costco Gives Employees Thanksgiving Off; Wal-Mart Leads "Black Thursday" Charge
Oct 29, 2014, 9:57 PM
"Bear Selfies" Fad Could Turn Deadly, Warn Nevada Wildlife Officials
Oct 28, 2014, 12:00 PM
The Surface Mini That Was Never Released Gets "Hands On" Treatment
Sep 26, 2014, 8:22 AM
ISIS Imposes Ban on Teaching Evolution in Iraq
Sep 17, 2014, 5:22 PM
More Blog Posts
Copyright 2016 DailyTech LLC. -
Terms, Conditions & Privacy Information