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Mike Ravine, Advanced Projects Manager for Malin Space Science Systems  (Source: torynfarr/flickr)

A two-image panorama shot with the rover's 1024 x 1024 mono navigation cameras  (Source: NASA)
Reasons included the amount of data produced, the fact that they had to meet the needs of different cameras, and the team's familiarity with these sensors

NASA recently accomplished a huge feat by landing its Mars rover Curiosity on the Red Planet, but one of the questions on the minds of many was why such a sophisticated machine used 2 MP cameras.
 
Mike Ravine, a project manager from Malin Space Science Systems, was happy to answer that in an interview with Digital Photography Review. He said the main reasons for using 2 MP sensors in the cameras were the amount of data produced, the fact that they had to meet the needs of different cameras, and the team's familiarity with these sensors.
 
"There's a popular belief that projects like this are going to be very advanced, but there are things that mitigate against that," said Ravine. "These designs were proposed in 2004, and you don't get to propose one specification then go off and develop something else. Two MP with 8 GB of flash didn't sound too bad in 2004. But it doesn't compare well to what you get in an iPhone today."
 
The amount of data produced is a large reason for using 2 MP cameras. There just isn't enough bandwidth for anything more powerful because the cameras must share with other instruments. Curiosity sends data back to Earth via the UHF transmitter, which transmits to two spacecraft orbiting Mars. The data is then sent back to Earth, and this system only allows for 250 megabits per day to be shared amongst various instruments.
 
The 2 MP camera sensors also were the tools of choice for the use of four different cameras, including the MAHLI, MARDI and two Mastcams. Having four different sensors for each camera would be expensive and more difficult to maintain rather than having one type of sensor all across the board. 
 
The team's familiarity with the sensors was crucial, too. The team knew the behavior of Truesense imaging chips and Kodak's KAI-2020 chip, so it makes sense that they'd work with what they know. 
 
"We know how to clock them and drive them," said Ravine. "They're a very easy CCD to drive."
 
Other issues, like the low pixel count, are not an issue either since the two Mastcams will create images from multiple exposures. 
 
NASA rover Curiosity landed successfully on Mars earlier this week after launching from Cape Canaveral, Florida on November 26, 2011. Curiosity is a one-ton, nuclear-powered, Mini Cooper-sized science laboratory that will explore the Martian surface for the next two years. 

Source: Digital Photography Review



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By Solandri on 8/9/2012 6:42:19 PM , Rating: 4
MRO has a much more powerful transmitter, and being in orbit makes its transmissions much easier to pick up from Earth. The rovers actually uplink their data to orbiters like MRO, MO, and MGS (RIP) first, then the orbiters transmit it to Earth. But these communications windows are very short (usually a few minutes), so the amount of data they can uplink is limited despite much higher local bandwidth.
http://www.astrosurf.com/luxorion/qsl-mars-communi...

quote:
The MRO for example (the probe that took the photo of the parachute) was launched in 2005, and uses custom sensors to sweep out panoramas over 20,000 pixels wide

That isn't really a camera. It's a strip which is swept across the area being photographed (either by turning the telescope or movement of MRO itself). The other axis is generated by the sweep, and is limited by the computer memory onboard. It's incapable of generating an instantaneous 2D picture.

MRO does have a 6 MP camera on board. Do note that camera requirements for orbiters are much less stringent than landers since they don't have to deal with atmosphere or dust.


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