New Device Sends Signals Directly from Brain to Muscles, Paralyzed Patients Could Benefit
April 20, 2012 4:40 PM
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The new brain machine could help those with paralysis
The machine has already helped a monkey move its paralyzed hand
Northwestern University researchers have created a machine that could one day allow paralyzed patients to move their hands again.
Lee E. Miller, study leader and professor of neuroscience, physiology, physical medicine and rehabilitation at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, developed a brain machine that sends messages from the brain directly to paralyzed muscles (without passing through the spinal cord),
allowing the muscles to move again
To do this, Miller and his team implanted electrodes into monkeys and recorded electrical brain and muscle signals. Using the recordings, the researchers created an algorithm that allowed them to interpret the signals and understand patterns associated with muscle activity. In other words, the team managed to compute the relationship between the brain and muscle activity.
"We are eavesdropping on the natural electrical signals from the brain that tell the arm and hand how to move, and sending those signals directly to the muscles," said Miller. "This connection from brain to muscles might someday be used to
help patients paralyzed
due to spinal cord injury perform activities of daily living and achieve greater independence."
Miller and his team tested the brain machine on a monkey that had a local anesthetic block nerve activity at the elbow. This caused temporary paralysis of the hand. Then, using neuroprosthesis, which were devices in the brain and arms that sense a plethora of movements the monkey may want to make (such as gripping a ball), the monkeys brain signals controlled tiny electric currents that were delivered to the muscles in less than 40 milliseconds. The monkey was allowed to pick up a ball almost as it did before its hand was paralyzed.
Part of the system was an implant called a multi-electrode array, which is capable of detecting 100 neurons' activity in the brain. It acts as an interface between the brain and the computer used to interpret signals associated with hand movements.
Miller said the system could help those with paralysis learn to move their hands and possibly other muscles in the body at some point.
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RE: Just a start
4/21/2012 8:21:32 PM
It's been several years, so I don't remember clearly, but I recall a Popular Science article (I think) about enhanced vision and additional limbs. In that, experts said human minds wouldn't know how to interpret the vision signals or use the limbs, thus they would be useless. I believe they said they didn't think they could even make a person who was born blind able to see. The brain needed to be wired for the task.
We'd need a computer that would somehow interface with our brains like what Dr. Octopus had in Spider-Man 2. (hopefully the violent insanity thing isn't a real issue)
Vision overlays could work. Isn't Google already doing something like this with their "Project Glass"?
Replacing missing limbs and enhancing strength is quite possible, although probably ridiculously expensive.
I don't know what will come first, however - regrowing biological limbs, or fully functional prosthesis.
"If you look at the last five years, if you look at what major innovations have occurred in computing technology, every single one of them came from AMD. Not a single innovation came from Intel." -- AMD CEO Hector Ruiz in 2007
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