One Ring is Crux of HP's Photonic Supercomputing Project
March 8, 2012 4:10 PM
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(Source: Peter Jackson/New Line Cinema)
HP plans to produce 256-core 3D photonic-enabled chip by 2017 on a 16 nm process
Currently silicon die processing units (xPUs) are in a very mature state. Advanced central processing unit (CPU) core designs like
, along with graphics processing unit (GPU) counterparts
Graphics Core Next
offer Teraflops of computational power to a desktop -- or even laptop -- user.
Burns With Desire for Exascale Computing
But much as mobile computing today is being held back by slow progress in terms of batteries (energy storage), the incredible computing power inside everything from laptops to supercomputers is being held back by the
sluggish speed of data transfers
, both between cores, and between the CPU and off-die devices like GPUs or DRAM.
That sluggish transfer is predicated on electric interconnects, and its cure is
photonic (light-based) interconnects
. But perfecting the design and manufacturing of
printed directly on-die is no easy task.
Hewlett Packard Comp.'s (
) research wing,
, revealed information this week on its "Corona" photonic computing push, which aims to produce a 256-core chip with on-die photonic data links between the cores by 2017.
A prototype of HP Lab's
photonic computing project is shown here in action, guiding a laser. [Image Source: HP Labs]
HP Labs is a highly respected name in the industry, and was the
first lab to produce working memristors
, a new kind of fundamental circuit element. HP is
on the verge of deploying
its first memristor devices next year.
The HP project is focused on building five vital components of an on-die laser-based communications system:
Waveguides (which confine and guide the light)
Light sources (which produce the light)
Modulators (which control the light source to produce a signal in the light)
Switchable interconnects between waveguides (control flow of light)
Light receivers (which offer built in reception and decoding of signals)
[PDF] on Corona reveals technical details about how it plans to achieve its goals.
II. Building Blocks of a Photonic Supercomputer
The company plans to build 500 nm width wave guides out of standard silicon oxide (SiO2) and crystalline silicon.
The light sourced used will likely be a modulated continuous-wave laser, which changes the wavelength of the light. In layman's terms the human eye perceives different wavelengths of light within a select range as "colors", so you can think of this as a "multi-color" laser (although the colors may not be visible to the human eye). This approach differs from using a pulsing (direct modulated) laser. Such lasers are certainly feasible, but require exotic semiconductors, making them problematic with tradition complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) manufacturing processes.
The modulator, waveguide switchers, and receivers are built out of looping "rings". Light is modulated by injecting charge into the rings.
uses several types of ring-type photonic micro/nano-structures.
[Image Source: HP Labs] (CLICK image to enlarge)
Likewise, light can be switched between waveguides by changing the resonant characteristics of rings. A very similar approach is used for the detector, in which a ring exposed to a single waveguide is brought to a specific resonance, which results in a certain wavelength of light being absorbed by a germanium photodetector and all other wavelengths passing through unaltered.
In the sense that it forms three of the most crucial components to HP's optically enable "stack" of interconnected cores, this ring structure is truly "one ring to rule them all."
An electronic microscope image of HP's all-important ring structure. [Image Source: HP Labs]
III. The Race Towards Light Speed Transfers, 3D-Chip Computing
HP Labs researcher Marco Fiorentino told
, that while photonic computing is crucial to faster PCs and exascale supercomputers -- computers 100 times faster than today's top supercomputer -- many chipmakers are going about the design in the wrong way. He states, "Electronics … cannot scale to the scale that we need for these large systems. A lot of people have concentrated on individual devices. Now they’re starting to build circuits. It’s like going from the transistor to the integrated circuit."
By focusing its sights on traditional CMOS-compatible designs only, HP Labs feels its
project is more likely to succeed in the near-term.
The optical interconnects will not only allow for faster communications between processors (hence enhancing the overall effective computing speed), but will also cut power consumption (and by proxy on-die heat production). According to Mr. Fiorentino transferring data at a rate of 10 TBps would currently draw about 160 W. But with on-die photonic lasers his team hopes to cut that total to 6.4 W.
also rides the wave of
"3D" chip designs
, a field HP is a key pioneer in. Via using new processes to create
through-silicon via (TSV) interconnects
, the 256-core
core "stacks" can be piled on top of one another in dense configurations.
HP's design uses an optical crossbar connect four cores. These "stacks" are then TSV connected to one another to form a 64 (likely 4 x 4 x 4) stack, 256-core configuration. HP Labs hopes to produce the entire stacked chip on a 16 nm process by 2017.
Now, HP is not alone in its quest here. Since at least 2010, International Business Machines, Inc. (
) has been
working on a similar project
dubbed the intra-chip optical network (ICON). And then there's the other 3D exascale chip competitors -- Intel Corp.'s (
", NVIDIA Corp.'s (
" a project at the
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Integrated Systems Group
Sandia National Laboratories
's 3D-chip "
HP Labs [PDF]
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RE: Super Computers
3/9/2012 9:11:02 AM
Not necessarily. Imagine a CPU made with photonics isntead of electronics, the processing power of it is boundless. There are no leakage, not much heat output, 100 times faster than traditional CPU is not exagerating.
CPU with a serial work load is not likely as bandwidth starved as massively parallel workload like a general GPU will handle, so you don't need everything to be optical. It can still communicate with the rest of the peripherals with copper wire.
RE: Super Computers
3/9/2012 12:07:14 PM
Five hundred nm is HUGE. I doubt they are planning to use these for logic, probably just as interconnect between devices. Additionally, they have some major effort trying to convert ten terabytes per second of data to something usable by a CPU, unless is is massively parallel rather than serial (which kinda defeats the purpose). It will be interesting to see what they use to de-serialize the data (maybe a multi-phase optical shift register?) - by 2017 I doubt we will have a ten terahertz silicon process. This idea would be very useful in making massive MIMD machines. It could eliminate one of the biggest hurdles, getting data from where it is to where it's needed to be processed (and not necessarily just stored).
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