MIT Researchers May Have Found Cure for the Common Cold, Other Viruses
August 29, 2011 9:22 PM
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The left panel shows treated and untreated cells in regards to the common cold virus (rhinovirus) while the right panel shows treated and untreated monkey cells in regards to dengue hemorrhagic fever virus
(Source: Massachusetts Institute of Technology)
Double-stranded RNA Activated Caspase Oligomerizers (DRACOs) could be the answer for terminating viruses like H1N1 influenza, stomach viruses, a polio virus, several types of hemorrhagic fever and dengue fever
Viruses like the common cold and influenza are infections that we occasionally must ride out. All anyone can really do is rest and take medications to ease the symptoms, which can range from congestion to fever to vomiting. Other viruses, such as
, can be potentially fatal due to Ebola hemorrhagic fever.
While many bacterial infections can be treated with antibiotics, not many viral infections can be treated with medications. Only a "handful" can fight viruses, like the protease inhibitors to
, but most other treatments only relieve the symptoms, and even that can take several days in some cases. Viruses are difficult to attack because they change and replicate in healthy cells.
But now, a team of researchers at MIT's Lincoln Laboratory
may have found the cure
for the common cold as well as many other viruses like H1N1 influenza, stomach viruses, a polio virus, several types of hemorrhagic fever and dengue fever. The team, led by Todd Rider, a senior staff scientist in Lincoln Laboratory's Chemical, Biological and Nanoscale Technologies Group, created therapeutic agents called Double-stranded RNA Activated Caspase Oligomerizers (DRACOs) which have successfully terminated viral infections.
Viruses infect cells
by taking over the cell entirely and multiplying. While making copies of themselves, the viruses also produce long strings of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). This is not found in animal or human cells.
To fight these infected cells, healthy human cells have proteins that bind to dsRNA, which then prompts a series of reactions that work to stop the virus from making copies of itself. The problem is that the virus can block one of the healthy cells' series of steps to prevent its replication somewhere down the line, allowing the virus to change and further reproduce once again.
To remedy this problem, Rider and his team mixed a dsRNA protein with another protein that causes cells to go through apoptosis, which is programmed cell suicide. One end of the DRACO binds to dsRNA while the other end is instructed to launch cell suicide.
Also, each DRACO consists of a "delivery tag" that they received from naturally occurring proteins. This allows it to enter any human or animal by crossing cell membranes, meaning that it can combat a broad spectrum of viruses, possibly including new outbreaks.
The team tested the DRACOs in human and animal cells cultured in the lab as well as mice infected with the H1N1 influenza virus. They found that DRACO left the mice fully cured of the infection, and that DRACO is not toxic to these animals. In addition, DRACO only targeted cells with dsRNA present while leaving healthy cells alone.
Rider and his team are now testing DRACO on other viruses in mice, and hope to eventually test it on larger animals and humans.
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RE: You Always Have To Question...
8/30/2011 11:53:00 AM
I absolutely agree with banthracis on 99% of his points. Penicillin was the first beta lactam antibiotic we discovered, and from our knowledge of its activity we were able to generate several distinct antibiotics without even modifying the beta lactam ring structure. From there, we created new classes of antibiotics that don't use beta lactam rings to inhibit peptidoglycan formation and instead attack other unique aspects of bacterial physiology, such as bacterial ribosomes.
Antibiotics and vaccination, alongside improved sanitary conditions, were responsible for the jump in average life expectancy from a high of around 50 at the turn of the 20th century to an average of around 75 years at the turn of the 21st. While having an effective tool against viral infections will be useful for combating infectious disease, the current limitation to human life expectancy is the prevalence of cancers associated with aging, breakdown of vasculature associated with aging, and neurodegeneration associated with aging. If we can overcome these challenges who knows what length and quality of life humans might be able to achieve.
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