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Liaoconodon hui  (Source: Jin Meng)
A new fossil, Liaoconodon hui, was found in China and has all three middle ear bones

Researchers have discovered a complete mammalian fossil that includes a transitional middle ear, which consists of three bones that paleontologists have been searching for over 150 years.  

Jin Meng, study leader and curator in the Division of Paleontology at the American Museum of Natural History, along with Wang Yuanqing and Li Chuankui, both from the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology at the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing, have found the first complete mammalian fossil that includes the transitional middle ear.

Mammals are defined as a class of air-breathing vertebrate animals that share characteristics like hair and mammary glands in mothers with young. They also share three middle ear bones called the malleus, incus and ectotympanic. Two of these bones are found in the joint of the lower jaw in reptiles, and researchers believe that an evolutionary shift from lizards to mammals separated the quadrate and articular plus prearticular bones from the posterior lower jaw, and they became associated with hearing as the malleus and the incus.

Previous fossils show early mammals with reptilian jaw joints and reductions in these bones for both chewing and hearing while other early mammalian fossils have ossified cartilage still connected to the groove on their lower jaws. But none of these fossils had the middle ear bones, and more evidence was needed to confirm this early transition and the mysteries of the mammalian middle ear. 

"People have been looking for this specimen for over 150 years since noticing a puzzling groove on the lower jaw of some early mammals," said Meng. "Now we have cartilage with ear bones attached, the first clear paleontological evidence showing relationships between the lower jaw and middle ear." 

The new fossil, which is called Liaoconodon hui, is a medium-sized mammal measuring 35.7 cm long. It dates from the Mesozoic (about 125 to 122 million years) and was named after the fossil beds in Liaoning, China, which is where it was discovered. It was also named after Yaoming Hu, who was a graduate of the American Museum of Natural History's doctoral program and passed away recently.  

Liaoconodon hui is complete, and shows researchers that the incus and malleus are detached from the lower jaw in order to create part of the middle ear. According to the study, the incus and the malleus "remain linked to the jaw by the ossified Meckel's cartilage that rests in the groove on the lower jaw," and the eardrum was stabilized with this cartilage as support. 

"Before we did not know the detailed morphology of how the bones of the middle ear detached, or the purpose of the ossified cartilage," said Meng. "Liaoconodon hui changes previous interpretations because we now know the detailed morphology of the transitional mammals and can propose that the ossified cartilage is a stabilizer."

This study also found that the middle ear "probably" evolved twice in monotremes, marsupials and placentals. This was determined by features associated with the groove on the lower jaw and other bones, including the presence of ossified Meckel's cartilage.  

This study was published in Nature.

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RE: Why Bother?
By safcman84 on 4/19/2011 4:45:11 AM , Rating: 2
What kind of evolution do you believe in then?

single cell life --> multi-cellular life --> diversify into the hundreds of different plants and animals you see today through evolution.

Maybe I misunderstood you but:
Mammals evolved from something, why cant it be from a reptile? it is not a evolutionary leap, but gradual evolution from reptile to mammal, it only seems to be a "leap" as not every single process in the evolution from reptile to mammal has found in the fossil record, so we have gaps and missing links. this fossil fills one of the gaps in, but not all of them -> the remaining gaps make it look like a leap, but that is far from the case.

RE: Why Bother?
By Reclaimer77 on 4/19/11, Rating: 0
RE: Why Bother?
By Paj on 4/19/2011 8:32:10 AM , Rating: 1
How can you believe in evolution, yet deny macroevolution? All youre doing is demonstrating your lack of knowledge.

Why do humans have a tailbone? Wisdom teeth, that can cause pain and death if not removed? Seems like an oversight at best, a poor design at worst. Furthermore, why do dolphins and whales have lungs if they live in the water? Who would design an animal in this way?

Isn't it possible that two species can have the same type of ear bones WITHOUT being related to each other? Is there any other evidence besides the ear bones that we're looking at a distant relative here?

Yes, it is. Its called convergent evolution, where the same biological trait is acquired in unrelated lineages. ie wovles and the (now extinct) Tasmainian Tiger share many common characteristics, despite being unrelated biologically or genetically.

RE: Why Bother?
By Reclaimer77 on 4/19/11, Rating: 0
RE: Why Bother?
By Fritzr on 4/19/2011 7:51:14 PM , Rating: 2
Quite easily. I don't. Our thoughts shape the universe, do they not? It always matters what we think.

If you believe that thinking beings created modern humans by shaping the universe with their thoughts, then yes I would include you with the Flat Earthers who deny that ships disappear over the horizon as they sail away.
This is still a very health debate on macro evolution in scientific circles, so please don't pretend that I'm some wacko claiming the Earth is flat.

If you actually read the article you would know that the discovery documents support of your theory of gradual change.

RE: Why Bother?
By Reclaimer77 on 4/19/2011 9:47:07 PM , Rating: 2
If you believe that thinking beings created modern humans by shaping the universe

Not exactly what I meant, and I think you know that. But okay, moving on...

If you actually read the article you would know that the discovery documents support of your theory of gradual change.

Then hoooray. Go me!

RE: Why Bother?
By Fritzr on 4/19/2011 7:45:48 PM , Rating: 2
I believe in micro evolution. That a species can adapt etc etc, you know the deal.

I do NOT believe that frogs can become dogs, or dogs can become man. I do not believe in macro evolution. Also this crackpot theory about how all the dinosaurs "evolved" into birds and one of those birds became a primate and that primate became, eventually, man....I mean, give me a break. You really buy that crap?

So you believe that all canines evolved from earlier canine variants, horses, zebras etc. evolved from earlier equine variants, alligaors, crocodiles, gavials etc. evolved from earlier crocodilian variants.

Extending this argument to it's logical conclusion, you end up with intelligent design and dinosaurs sharing the planet with apes. This occurs because simple precellular life cannot evolve into single cell life, single cell life evolve into simple multicellular life, simple multicellular life into complex multicellular life, different lineages of multicellular life branching into multiple unique and seemingly unrelated life.

In short your theory requires that the primordial earth be populated by "advanced" life forms that were spontaneously created. Note this is not intelligent design, but simply "Spontaneous Creation" of "higher" life forms directly out of the chemical broth that covered the early Earth.

These various lineages then had to survive ALL the disasters and climate changes that have occurred during the subsequent history of the Earth.

Applying Occam's Razor to the logical consequences of your theory lends credence to evolution generating what appear to be major leaps in form and function.

This article documents the discovery of physical evidence of one of the gradual changes that your theory requires, so I do not understand why you are objecting to an interpretation of the discovery that lends support to your beliefs.

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