New 3-D Model Shows Neural Network's Individual Connections
March 11, 2011 12:51 PM
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Could be useful for those with neurological conditions
researchers have created a 3-D nanoscale model of neural circuits, which allows the medical school team to "crawl" through the neural network's individual connections.
Clay Reid, study leader and Harvard Medical School professor of neurobiology, along with graduate student Davi Bock and postdoctoral researcher Wei-Chung Allen Lee, have developed a 3-D model capable of showing researchers
in the neural network, which could provide information about the brain we never knew before.
Until now, researchers have worked to find ways of understanding the brain's inner workings, especially in the cerebral cortex. The cerebral cortex processes reasoning, sensory input, and possibly even free will, making it one of the brain's most important regions. Researchers have understood a broad outline of the anatomy of the cerebral cortex for some time, and more recently, imaging technology has allowed them to look closer into the brain's methods of processing information. While this has showed what a circuit actually does, it hasn't showed us how it operates. This is because one circuit contains 10,000 to 100,000 neurons, where each makes 10,000 interconnections. This is a total of 1 billion connections within one single circuit, and this makes it difficult to get into the circuit and
examine its wiring
But Reid's team has been working at this problem for several years. They've studied the cerebral cortex thoroughly, isolating individual neurons while they "fire in response to external stimuli." Now, the team has successfully created a model capable of showing individual connections at work.
The Harvard team injected the region of a mouse brain responsible for vision with dyes that "flashed" whenever certain neurons fired. Then, using a laser-scanning microscope, they recorded these firings. Electron microscopy was then utilized to see these neurons and hundreds of others "with nanometer resolution." A new imaging system was then used to capture over 3 million high-resolution images, which were sent to the Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center at Carnegie Mellon University to be stitched into 3-D images. Ten individual neurons were chosen from these images and their connections were traced through the brain in order to develop a diagram.
Through this model, Reid and his team found that neurons that suppress
are randomly wired, suppressing neurons in local groups all at once, which is an important find for those with neurological problems. For instance, epilepsy is caused by neural restriction gone amiss.
"This is just the iceberg's tip," said Reid. "Within ten years I'm convinced we'll be imaging the activity of thousands of neurons in a living brain. In a visual circuit, we'll interpret the data to reconstruct what an animal actually sees. By that time, with the anatomical imaging, we'll also know how it's all wired together."
Reid plans to keep working to produce larger data sets, and to perfect the overall model.
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With an active recording...
3/13/2011 12:14:45 AM
People can tivo their lives...Then store visual memories offsite in the cloud to be tweeted to friends.
It will be cool though once the brain is completely cracked... I still remember this Michael Kube-McDowell book titled "Vectors" which, (spoiler alert) deals with a scientist attempting to map brain patterns.
The book ends up finding that they are not limitless, and when a person dies, the soul is reborn, and that new brain pattern shows up on the new child...
I know other books have explored mapping/recording the mind in such a way to restore it on a blank slate, or with a vastly powerful computer network, but this is the first piece of fiction where it was explored to the point of mixing it with religion.
One of the main protagonist is a virtual reality game designer, also designing VR head units, and the other is a neurologist, so they create games for people to play, and while mapping their brains, they find that each pattern is pretty unique, almost like a picture of the person... And randomly they find that a newborn that is mapped ends up having the same pattern of someone who had died... Thus starts a frantic search for others... Their is a pretty major twist that happens that leaves you wishing for the sequel...
"Game reviewers fought each other to write the most glowing coverage possible for the powerhouse Sony, MS systems. Reviewers flipped coins to see who would review the Nintendo Wii. The losers got stuck with the job." -- Andy Marken
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