Fossilized Plankton Provide Insight into Earth's Ancient Atmosphere
February 23, 2011 4:40 PM
comment(s) - last by
Study shows plankton became more diverse during a time when oxygen levels spiked in Earth's earliest breathable atmosphere
Ohio State University
have found that plankton play a large part in understanding the origin of Earth's first breathable atmosphere.
Matthew Saltzman, study leader and associate professor of earth sciences at Ohio State University, and a team of researchers, have discovered that
plankton are the key
to understanding the gap between the atmosphere and 500 million-year-old chemical isotopes found in rocks.
The Ohio State University team previously conducted a study that showed that upward displacements in the Earth's crust 500 million years ago lead to a reverse greenhouse effect, which cooled the oceans producing large plankton blooms, and sent oxygen into the atmosphere.
Now, Saltzman and his team have discovered how oxygen disappeared from Earth's atmosphere during the Cambrian Period and then reappeared at higher levels. The team was able to quantify exactly how much oxygen was released during this period, and linked the amount of sulfur in oceans at that time with atmospheric carbon dioxide and oxygen. They also looked at how oxygen allowed a large amount of new life to thrive after it returned.
"We know that oxygen levels in the ocean dropped dramatically [a condition called anoxia] during the Cambrian, and that coincides with
the time of a global extinction
," said Saltzman. "We still don't know why the anoxia spread all over the world. We may never know. But there have been many other extinction events in Earth's history, and with the exception of those caused by meteor impacts, others likely share elements of this one - changes in the balance of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and oceans."
When searching for what may have allowed oxygen back into the atmosphere and oceans 500 million years ago, researchers found that plankton played a huge role. During that time period, life didn't exist on land and life in the oceans was not as diverse as it is today, which made plankton a very big deal as far as ancient lifeforms go.
Then a geologic event called the Steptoean Positive Carbon Isotope Excursion (SPICE) occurred, burying large amounts of organic matter in ocean sediments. This pulled carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and in turn, released oxygen. As plankton encounter oxygen, they become more selective for the "light isotope of carbon in carbon dioxide" and absorb it.
Saltzman and his team looked at isotopes in fossilized plankton found in rocks located in the central United States,
and the Australian outback. They discovered that "plankton revolution," which is when plankton became more diverse, occurred around the same time as the SPICE event.
"The amount of oxygen rebounded, and so did the diversity of life," said Saltzman. "We were able to bring together independent lines of evidence that showed that if the total oxygen was around 5-10 percent before the SPICE, then it rose to just above modern levels for the first time after the SPICE."
Information that the plankton have provided could be used to possibly deter
by changing the chemistry of the ocean to remove carbon dioxide.
"When it comes to ancient life, they don't sound as exciting as dinosaurs, but the plankton are critical to this story," said Saltzman.
was published in
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
This article is over a month old, voting and posting comments is disabled
RE: What does this mean for Carbon dating accuracy
2/24/2011 10:29:55 AM
thats a good short primer on carbon dating and its limitations.
its interesting to see how due to fluctuations in cosmic rays can produce periods where its really hard to date something.
it also talks about the various proxy methods they use to calibrate the historic record for cosmic rays.
its a good read
"There is a single light of science, and to brighten it anywhere is to brighten it everywhere." -- Isaac Asimov
Study: Even if All Emissions Were Cut Now, Warming Could Continue
February 16, 2011, 2:39 PM
Study Shows Dinosaurs Lived 700,000 Years After Mass Extinction
January 31, 2011, 10:27 AM
Massive China Dig Reveals How Evolution Conquered Mass Extinction
December 23, 2010, 12:13 PM
Star Wars Spinoff Film "Rogue One", Theme Park Attractions Announced
August 17, 2015, 12:20 PM
SpaceX Falcon 9's Seventh Supply Mission to ISS Ends w/ Fiery Stage 1 Explosion
June 28, 2015, 1:10 PM
Cool Science Video: Glowing Millipede Prowls the Nevada Desert
May 18, 2015, 12:00 PM
Newly Discovered Costa Rican Glass Frog is Kermit's Doppelgänger
April 22, 2015, 11:26 AM
Researchers Hope to Find "Exotic" Lifeforms Inside Crater of Dinosaur Killing Meteor
April 14, 2015, 8:47 PM
Mathematician's Sociological Formulation May Explain the "Hipster Paradox"
April 14, 2015, 1:13 PM
Most Popular Articles
Why the U.S. Won't be Able to Ban Google's New Huawei Marshmallow Flagship Phone
October 3, 2015, 5:27 PM
Microsoft Band 2 Stays Focused on Fitness, Debuts Oct. 30, Priced at $249
October 6, 2015, 9:16 PM
Tag Heuer Admits Its $1,800 Smartwatch Was Inspired By Apple -- Price-Wise
September 30, 2015, 6:32 PM
Apple's First Fixes to iOS 9 Land w/ iOS 9.0.1 Release
September 23, 2015, 6:11 PM
Breaking Bad: How to Crash Google's Chrome Browser With Just 8 Characters
September 23, 2015, 11:08 AM
Latest Blog Posts
Sceptre Airs 27", 120 Hz. 1080p Monitor/HDTV w/ 5 ms Response Time for $220
Dec 3, 2014, 10:32 PM
Costco Gives Employees Thanksgiving Off; Wal-Mart Leads "Black Thursday" Charge
Oct 29, 2014, 9:57 PM
"Bear Selfies" Fad Could Turn Deadly, Warn Nevada Wildlife Officials
Oct 28, 2014, 12:00 PM
The Surface Mini That Was Never Released Gets "Hands On" Treatment
Sep 26, 2014, 8:22 AM
ISIS Imposes Ban on Teaching Evolution in Iraq
Sep 17, 2014, 5:22 PM
More Blog Posts
Copyright 2015 DailyTech LLC. -
Terms, Conditions & Privacy Information