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A visualization of particles jets in the CMS. Yellow is the path of the particles, while blue and red represent energy detected from the particles.  (Source: CERN/Imperial College of London)
Discovery of dark matter's behavior would solve many outstanding mysteries in physics

Dark matter makes up five times more of the universe's mass than visible matter (~25% vs ~5%), yet scientists have yet to directly observe this ultra-abundant substance.  Scientists also have yet to observe dark energy, which may well beat out normal energy in universal abundance.  This lack of direct observations means that scientists know precious little about two of the most important physical components of our universe.

That could soon change.  CERN's Large Hadron Collider, a 17-mile long circular underground track that is chilled to almost zero degrees Kelvin, is recording incredibly violent collisions, the likes of which haven't been seen since billions of years ago.  Those collisions will likely produce exotic substances like dark matter, which will be analyzed by the LHC's instruments, unlocking long debated mysteries of physics.

Scientists think they are making progress in the hunt for the SUSY – also known as supersymmetric particle, or 'sparticle'.  Scientists believe the sparticle may be the mysterious dark matter, given its theoretical stability.

In order to detect sparticles, scientists must probe the matter resulting from the collision for the absence of energy and momenta signals -- the sign that a sparticle was produced, rather than a standard particle.  This lack of energetic emissivity is the reason why dark matter is dark -- it does not transfer energy to photons, like standard particles.

More specifically, the researchers are trying to detect a "jet" of particles traveling in the same direction, post proton-beam collision, that lack a significant amount of detected energy and momentum.  

Professor Oliver Buchmueller [profile], a faculty member at the Department of Physics at Imperial College London who is doing research at CERN, describes the LHC team's findings, stating [press release], "We need a good understanding of the ordinary collisions so that we can recognise the unusual ones when they happen. Such collisions are rare but can be produced by known physics. We examined some 3-trillion proton-proton collisions and found 13 'SUSY-like' ones, around the number that we expected. Although no evidence for sparticles was found, this measurement narrows down the area for the search for dark matter significantly."

The CMS (compact muon solenoid) detector was co-designed by faculty at the Imperial College, one of Europe's best physics schools.  

Professor Geoff Hall [profile], another Imperial College physics faculty member working at CERN, describes the recent detection of "SUSY-like" streams of particles, stating, "We have made an important step forward in the hunt for dark matter, although no discovery has yet been made. These results have come faster than we expected because the LHC and CMS ran better last year than we dared hope and we are now very optimistic about the prospects of pinning down Supersymmetry in the next few years."

Later this year, physicists will run more trials, which they hope will verify the existence of dark matter in the stream.  They also hope that the theory of supersymmetry will be verified as an accurate description of dark matter, allowing the Standard Model of particle physics to be officially extended.

Looking ahead there's also much hope that the higher-energy collisions might yield a legendary Higgs boson, which would offer much more insight into the behavior of the universe.  The LHC's other major detector -- ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS) -- was designed to search for the Higgs boson.

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RE: Wait
By MrBlastman on 2/2/2011 11:14:53 AM , Rating: 3
Well, see, there's something to be said for all this and that is this accelerator (which is amazing) is basically built around discoveries related to "Particle" physics--your fermions and bosons. It is a "particle accelerator" after all, and the detecting equipment serves as a solution for that purpose.

What you are getting at alludes to a conflicting and contrasting gap in physics--those physicists who follow down the straight and narrow path of "particle physics" and those who follow down the path of "string theorists." Both in different ways seek to eventually solve the same problem--finding a way to unify quantum physics with general (and somewhat special) relativity. As is right now, they are not completely compatible so we're going to great lengths to find a way to make them "work" together.

It would be negligent in every way to completely dismiss one avenue or the other--and is absolutely as negligent to be remiss in even mentioning the other, "string theory" in the context of this article. You do mention one thing:

All these "theories" are interesting but you cannot EVER say they are fact!

I think you made a fatal mistake in presuming that we can never say they are fact. You see, this is the burden of science--to formulate hypothesis and theories and then, to set out and collect data through experimentation and observation to prove these theories. If science were to function properly--eventually, with diligence... and given ample time (assuming humanity does not destroy itself in the process--which it is inevitably bent on doing), we will find "yes" or "no" answers to many of our "questions" (theories).

You are onto something here though,

I really don't think our electronics are capable of coming close to what the uni/multiverse is made up of. If dark matter really does exist, maybe we need to start making things out of dark matter in order to really understand what dark matter is. Afterall, right now, we're using instruments made of 'matter' to study the universe....

It is entirely possible that our universe is not a sole universe at all. To witness the mechanics of all of this, you've got to step into M-Theory and beyond, explore the concept of strings and be somewhat reticent in accepting the concensus of particle physics and their debunkment in the past of string theory as "wizards and witches." This "dark matter" could in fact not be standard matter indeed, but instead the fabric itself and its various kinks and curves due to hyper-gravitational after-shocks spanning back to billions of years. Heck, even with the most recent observation of a 12.5 billion year-old galaxy, if you step aside from the magnificence of this discover, it unto itself brings into question whether or not our universe is potentially even as old as we estimate, the distances involved, the speed of gravity and beyond. The proverbial "door" to our own expanse, well, the answer to it could lie in this dark matter and these multi-dimensional strings that theoretically we can not even observe due to the size of them.

Yes, we really do _not_ know what our universe is, quite yet at least. I think it all boils down to answering the question "What is nothing?" rather than "What is something?" which we have all been stuck on for centuries.

"Young lady, in this house we obey the laws of thermodynamics!" -- Homer Simpson
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