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Professor Mercouri Kanatzidis holds up his device that can harvest 14 percent of waste heat as usable electricity.  (Source: Northwestern University)
New lead-based compound could see a variety of scenarios -- including helping power the machines in the absence of sunlight

A new material from researchers at Northwestern University could offer a way to capture and recycle waste heat better than ever before [press release].  The material can convert a record 14 percent of the waste heat passing through it to usable electric energy.

When manmade devices perform work, be it a computer or a car, they produce heat.  That heat is ultimately lost, reducing the energy efficiency of our devices.  Some have cleverly exploited this fact, using waste heat to offer desirable comfort heating.  But ultimately, the only good solution is to try to somehow recapture that heat in a usable form.  To do that, the right material was necessary.

Semiconductors have long been considered a promising candidate, as they can produce electricity when heated.  Lead telluride (composed of lead and tellurium ions on a lattice) was considered one of the most promising candidates, as it was relatively efficient in accomplishing the heat to electricity transformation.  

But attempts to improve that efficiency via various techniques, such as nano-inclusions resulted in an undesirable side effect -- increased scattering of electrons, reducing overall conductivity.  Obviously, if you're converting heat to electricity, you have to funnel it out of the device, so this was unacceptable.

The NU team, lead by Chemistry professor Mercouri Kanatzidis discovered that by using a special type of nano-inclusion, the scattering could actually be reduced.  The trick was to use special crystals of rock salt (SrTe).  Professor Kanatzidis sums up, "It has been known for 100 years that semiconductors have this property that can harness electricity. To make this an efficient process, all you need is the right material, and we have found a recipe or system to make this material."

Materials Science professor Vinayak Dravid also assisted in the study.  He describes the results, stating, "We can put this material inside of an inexpensive device with a few electrical wires and attach it to something like a light bulb. The device can make the light bulb more efficient by taking the heat it generates and converting part of the heat, 10 to 15 percent, into a more useful energy like electricity."

The study on the promising material earned a place [abstract] in the prestigious peer-reviewed journal Nature Chemistry.

So the material seems great, but what about its commercialization prospects?

Well, lead telluride is relatively rare , but occurs naturally in mountain deposits as the mineral Altaite.  Significant deposits have been found in the Altai mountains of northeast Asia;  Zyrianovsk, Kazakhstan; the Ritchie Creek Deposit in Price County, Wisconsin; the Koch-Bulak gold deposit in Kazakhstan; Moctezuma, Mexico; and Coquimbo, Chile.

Given that air or liquid bearing waste heat can be channeled through a relatively small area, a little telluride (say in a heatpipe on a computer component) could go a long ways, recycling almost a sixth of the wasted energy.

Strontium is very abundant, so coming up with sufficient quantities of the nano-inclusion material shouldn't be as big an issue.

Aside from making existing devices more efficient, the material could be used to make new low voltage electronic devices, powered by waste heat from the human body.



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RE: Use it on vehicles
By gvaley on 1/20/2011 2:28:51 AM , Rating: 1
No, you are thinking in the right direction. This is exactly where past efforts have been directed at. Exhaust is the hottest part of the car and the surface area is relatively small. And it does not need cooling so stacking two or three layers of the energy recovery material would seem possible.


RE: Use it on vehicles
By Fritzr on 1/20/2011 10:41:28 AM , Rating: 1
A secondary radiator would be another good application. Run the hot water through the power unit to extract power from the water jacket, then into the normal radiator to provide the water cooling the engine needs.

The engineering problem is finding a place to put this extra radiator.


RE: Use it on vehicles
By Souka on 1/20/2011 11:32:07 AM , Rating: 2
In front of the engine, next to the radi... oh nevermind, there's already a radiator there!

I like the idea of a radiator in terms of delivering a very controlled temperature, but unless you go really high-pressure I suspect there is a correlation between temperature and energy produced (higher temp = more electricty).

Exaust manifold or nearby will probably be best location.


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