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  (Source: Purdue University graphic/Michel Schweinsberg)
Researchers use hydralazine to counter it

Researchers from Purdue University have discovered that an environmental toxin may aid in the cause of multiple sclerosis. 

The study's lead researcher is Riyi Shi, a medical doctor and professor of neuroscience and biomedical engineering in Purdue University's Department of Basic Medical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Center for Paralysis Research and Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering. Shi and his team of researchers have found that a certain environmental toxin could be held partially responsible for causing multiple sclerosis (MS). 

The toxin, acrolein, is found in air pollutants like auto exhaust and tobacco smoke. It is also created inside the body when nerve cells are damaged. 

Nerve cells are insulated with myelin, and when a person has MS, the myelin is dismantled and the nerve fibers are damaged. Researchers believe acrolein is responsible for the dismantling of the myelin as well as inducing the creation of free radicals, which are compounds that cause further injury to tissues that are already damaged due to trauma or disease. 

"Only recently have researchers started to understand the details about what acrolein does to the human body," said Shi. "We are studying its effects on the central nervous system, both in trauma and degenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis." 

To see if the researchers were correct about acrolein's effects, Shi and his team of researchers used a disease much like MS to elevate the acrolein in the spinal cord tissues of mice by nearly 60 percent. 

To neutralize acrolein and temporarily halt the onset of MS, Shi used the drug hydralazine, which is an FDA-approved medication normally used to treat hypertension. Previous studies conducted by Shi and his team have shown that hydralazine prevents acrolein from causing neuronal death

For this particular study, researchers concluded that a connection existed between acrolein and MS because the elevated acrolein levels within the mice were reduced by 50 percent when given hydralazine. According to Shi, this study is the first concrete laboratory evidence showing a link between acrolein and MS.

"The treatment did not cause any serious side effects in the mice," said Shi. "The dosage we used for hydralazine in animals is several times lower than the standard dosing for oral hydralazine in human pediatric patients. Therefore, considering the effectiveness of hydralazine at binding acrolein at such low concentrations, we expect that our study will lead to the development of new neuroprotective therapies for MS that could be rapidly translated into the clinic."

In addition, the researchers have also discovered the specific chemical signature of hydralazine, which could lead to synthetic alternatives with less side effects. 

The abstract can be found here.



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RE: Good
By bobsmith1492 on 11/24/2010 3:45:27 PM , Rating: 3
That can't be the cause of all MS, otherwise it would be curable like your mother's case. It sounds like her condition went undiagnosed because it presented symptoms similar to MS so further examinations weren't performed.

I'm glad your mother is doing better!


RE: Good
By omnicronx on 11/24/2010 4:54:59 PM , Rating: 2
I'm glad his mother is doing better too, but it sounds to me as though she was just flat out misdiagnosed as MS is an incurable auto immune disease.

Its very hard to diagnose in the first place, as there is no single symptom that specifically indicate that one has MS. Its usaully based on a long history of tests, so one can see how misdiagnoses can occur.. (i.e when someone like the OP's grandma has a long history of unexplainable illness in which seems to be immune system related, its not uncommon for it to be misdiagnosed as MS)


RE: Good
By exploderator on 11/24/10, Rating: -1
RE: Good
By protosv on 11/24/2010 5:59:57 PM , Rating: 2
Can you provide a source for this statistic?


RE: Good
By exploderator on 11/25/2010 4:21:20 PM , Rating: 2
The 90% ballpark (it might actually have been 95%) is from the results of recent studies done by Dr. Zamboni and/or colleagues in Europe, on hundreds of MS patients (probably from all over the world). I haven't checked out the work myself, I heard it second hand from my mom, who keeps up to date on this topic.

It's a simple test nowadays: if a person has MS, give them an MRV scan, and any venal constrictions show up clear as day. So that's what these doctors are doing, and the 90% ballpark is what they are finding. It's that simple.

The difficult part is that you actually have to do the damn test to find the problem.

Big Pharma wants a magic pill to sell, and they do not want anything else to come along (they do have a lot of money invested after all). The upper echelons of neurological research have huge reputations and budgets tied up in this "auto immune disorder" dogma; they could find their jobs quite suddenly obsolete if it's a dead end. And MS societies, well, they only stay in business so long as MS remains an incurable mystery disease; who would donate to "find a cure" for a mundane problem that's now solved. All together, that's all the big players with all the big voices (ie it's all the moneyed parties, and not the public at large). Those parties exert a lot of pull on the medical establishment, and/or they are the medical establishment. They out and out call the shots on what medical policy is, and they proclaim what the accepted truth is, concerning MS. And thus, much of the medical community is unwilling to even do the MRV testing, and the whole topic gets subjected to FUD smear campaigns, calling for never ending research and studies and "proper" approvals. It's just too radical (ie threatening) for them, that someone might have discovered a real cure in a place they weren't looking, so they refuse to look.

Seriously, they are talking about doing double blind studies, only pretending to operate on half the MS patients, just to prove that it's not all imaginary placebo or something. I bet that bright idea never came up once for broken bones, clogged arteries, strokes or aneurysms, or malfunctioning heart valves. I detect some seriously evil heel dragging (people are still dying from "MS"). CCSVI is a bloody mechanical plumbing issue, and we have the tools at hand.

If you actually scan people, as more and more doctors and clinics are doing world wide, you might just get a 90%+ hit rate like they are. That's what you get when you finally figure out how to look in the right place; you find the true cause of the problem.

Here in Canada, if you go to a doctor, and complain about just one of your "MS" symptoms on its own, you can get an MRV fairly easily (true example: progressing numbness in feet). And when it shows up that you have serious venal constrictions, they can treat you for that, not a big deal.

But if you have ever been diagnosed with "MS", even though you have symptoms that would each justify the same test on their own, they will deny you the testing because "you have MS", and "this hasn't been proven", and "this needs more research" (oh the irony of that last one). And of course we all know that "MS is an incurable autoimmune disorder..." ...don't we?

My mom knows a guy who just came down with MS over the last few years. He managed to get tested and treated for CCSVI before it got really bad, because his family doctor was willing to stay quiet on his behalf about the MS diagnosis, and snuck him through the system for an MRV test, based on the numb feet symptom alone. He was one of the lucky few MS patients to have an open minded doctor that does his homework, and who was brave enough to sneakily arrange for the testing. Of course when the MRV scan results were in, there was no possible doubt that there was a serious problem, so getting treatment was a given. The skeptical specialists (radiologists and cardiovascular surgeons) who would not have granted the testing up front (because of the MS), had their eyes opened wide, and will hopefully be more receptive in the future.

Thankfully the truth of CCSVI is easy enough to demonstrate, and many clinics are just going ahead with it, on the basis that it's all completely normal testing and surgery, just applied to a newly recognized issue. And they keep doing it because it works . The clinic that treated my mom is compiling results, and they will eventually publish. Many others are doing the same. The numbers will come out. But especially now at the beginning of this new treatment, many of the people involved are too busy helping people (how doctors make money) to focus on the research aspect, so it will take a while.

As for the lesions, the most involved researchers are thinking it's iron buildup caused by excess blood pressure in the brain. If you want details, I'm sure Google is your friend. Of course the resulting lesions are permanent or long term brain damage. If you cure the CCSVI, then you stop them from forming, so the sooner the treatment, the less permanent damage. If you stop the progression, you have cured the disease. We might also cure diabetes soon, but don't expect those who have been blinded by it to get their eyesight back, just because they no longer need insulin shots. Likewise, don't expect someone who's been 10 years in a wheelchair to suddenly jump up and tango, and cheer loudly if they ever stand again. And cheer again that they won't progress to lose the ability to eat or breath, and die.


RE: Good
By niva on 11/24/2010 6:03:31 PM , Rating: 2
I'm curious, where did you get this 90% figure from?

I'm glad for your mother and all, but MS is a serious disease, the fact that patients are misdiagnosed is one thing but I highly doubt 90%. My guess is probably 1%.

Please post a link, I'm not saying you're wrong, but if what you're saying is true that's incredible...


RE: Good
By menace on 11/29/2010 6:37:08 PM , Rating: 2
Wikipedia article on MS, Zamboni himself claims

"He found what he believes to be CCSVI in the majority of MS patients, performed a surgical procedure to correct it and claims that 73% of patients improved."

I would guess that is 73% of the patients who are found to have CCSVI indications so at best "majority" is best we have to go by, implying >50%.

From Wikipedia article on CCSVI, 90% might have come from this:

"Zamboni and colleagues claimed that in MS patients diagnosed with CCSVI, the azygous and IJV veins are stenotic in around 90% of the cases."

So again this is a Bayesean (conditional) probability and not saying that 90% of MS patients had CCSVI.

Further reading shows his claims and methods are controversial (no blind study, etc.) though not unfounded and that further scientific evaluations are in progress. Hope for some but certainly not a 90% cure.


RE: Good
By skapunker21 on 11/25/2010 11:00:53 AM , Rating: 1
Would you care to explain the lesions on the brains of MS patients that can be seen by MRI? Do you think your balloon treatment can cure that? Remember - no lesions, no MS.


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