Nerve Toxins Destroyed by Plant-Derived Bioscavenging Molecules
November 25, 2010 10:01 AM
comment(s) - last by
Transgenic Tobacco plant
(Source: The Biodesign Institute at Arizona State University)
Bioscavenging molecule BChE hunts and kills (or neutralizes) harmful organophosphates like pesticides, preventing them from harming the body
Arizona State University
biochemist has found that a chemical compound found in the brain, called acetylcholine, can be protected from poisoning from pesticides or nerve agents by creating a bioscavenging molecule synthetically from plants.
Tsafrir Mor, a biochemist in the Center for Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology at the Biodesign Institute at Arizona State University, has discovered that a bioscavenging molecule called butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is capable of defending acetylcholine against deliberate or accidental poisoning from chemicals found in pesticides as well as nerve agents.
has several lines of communication buzzing around all the time via electrical impulses and chemical transmissions, sending messages across the clefts dividing neurons from one another, or neurons from target cells. Within this organized communication is acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter in the peripheral nervous system and central nervous system that is vital when it comes to proper function within both systems. The problem with acetylcholine is that its cholinergic design is an easy target for organophosphates, which are chemicals found in several different pesticides and nerve agents. Organophosphates tend to
either deliberately or accidentally.
Prior to Mor's research, treatment for pesticide poisoning consisted of chemicals like atropine. Atropine is capable of relieving symptoms and saving lives, but it cannot cure seizures, muscle weakness or other forms of long term neurological effects caused by pesticides.
But now, Mor has found that two types of bioscavengers are capable of defending the body and mind against organophosphates. The first is acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which is created from by neurons in the brain, and the second is BChE, which is created by the liver and circulates in blood serum. These bioscavengers bind with foreign, harmful substances and then destroys or neutralizes them.
In addition to destroying/neutralizing foreign substances, these cholinesterases also remove acetylcholine molecules after their signaling tasks are complete. If they didn't do this, the acetylcholine molecules would crowd the nervous system producing neuromuscular paralysis. This would eventually lead to death because an abundance of acetylcholine molecules would create unregulated muscle contraction leading to cardiac and respiratory collapse.
The cholinesterases clean up the completed acetylcholine molecules through hydrolysis, which is a chemical reaction where a molecule is split into two parts because of the addition of a water molecule. AChE is capable of hydrolyzing 25,000 molecules of acetylcholine per second.
While AChE provides a means of eliminating acetylcholine molecules, BChE lies in the blood waiting to destroy any anti-cholinesterases, which attempt to block cholinesterase agents. Plants mainly develop these anti-cholinesterases as a way of halting harmful insects that may eat them, using the "cholinergic matrix" for defensive and offensive purposes. But BChE neutralizes organophosphates effectively within mammals and birds, protecting acetylcholine from pesticide poisoning.
But acquiring BChE is a difficult challenge. While it can be extracted easily enough from blood, there just isn't enough to defend "a few thousand troops" from poisoning. So Mor has suggested using transgenic tobacco plants that are
modified to synthesize human BChE
in their leaves. After testing this on two animal models, Mor concluded that this method successfully protected them from pesticide and nerve agent organophosphate poisoning. In addition, Mor was able to extend the half-life of this plant-derived BChE, which heightened its effectiveness.
Mor notes that BChE could be used to gain a better understanding of acetylcholine-related
such as Alzheimer's disease. Also, BChE could be used to treat cocaine overdose, and could help patients who have a difficult time recovering from anesthesia after surgery because they lack the naturally occurring enzyme.
was published in
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
This article is over a month old, voting and posting comments is disabled
Reputation , quality, absolute guarantee .
11/29/2010 8:36:23 PM
In order to meet Christmas, Some commodities have been, discount .In addition Buy $ 300 and receive a free glasses or a wallet, as a Christmas gift . welcome all friends to order. Reputation, quality, absolute guarantee. please log in:
. so what, move your mouse .ktuy
"We basically took a look at this situation and said, this is bullshit." -- Newegg Chief Legal Officer Lee Cheng's take on patent troll Soverain
Chevy Volt Rated at 93 MPG on Battery Power, 60 MPG Combined
November 24, 2010, 4:23 PM
Motor Neurone Disease Biomarker Discovered
November 5, 2010, 12:03 PM
Researchers Work to Erase Bad Memories
November 3, 2010, 9:36 AM
SpaceX Falcon 9's Seventh Supply Mission to ISS Ends w/ Fiery Stage 1 Explosion
June 28, 2015, 1:10 PM
Cool Science Video: Glowing Millipede Prowls the Nevada Desert
May 18, 2015, 12:00 PM
Newly Discovered Costa Rican Glass Frog is Kermit's Doppelgänger
April 22, 2015, 11:26 AM
Researchers Hope to Find "Exotic" Lifeforms Inside Crater of Dinosaur Killing Meteor
April 14, 2015, 8:47 PM
Mathematician's Sociological Formulation May Explain the "Hipster Paradox"
April 14, 2015, 1:13 PM
Cool Science Video: This is What a McDonald's Burger Looks Like in Your Stomach
April 7, 2015, 1:43 PM
Most Popular Articles
F-16 Schools Trillion-Dollar F-35 in Mock Combat, Fleeing is Best Option Pilot Admits
July 1, 2015, 5:53 PM
Apple Music: The Money, The Launch Hiccups, and the Nitty Gritty Details
June 30, 2015, 5:09 PM
Apple iOS 8.4 Rolls Out w/ Fix to Crash-Causing Unicode Text
June 30, 2015, 3:24 PM
Windows XP, Vista Users Can Get Free Windows 10 Upgrade Thanks to Loophole
June 23, 2015, 2:23 PM
Quick Note: Lumia 940 XL "Cityman" Phablet Gets Teased Via Tests
June 29, 2015, 5:51 PM
Latest Blog Posts
Sceptre Airs 27", 120 Hz. 1080p Monitor/HDTV w/ 5 ms Response Time for $220
Dec 3, 2014, 10:32 PM
Costco Gives Employees Thanksgiving Off; Wal-Mart Leads "Black Thursday" Charge
Oct 29, 2014, 9:57 PM
"Bear Selfies" Fad Could Turn Deadly, Warn Nevada Wildlife Officials
Oct 28, 2014, 12:00 PM
The Surface Mini That Was Never Released Gets "Hands On" Treatment
Sep 26, 2014, 8:22 AM
ISIS Imposes Ban on Teaching Evolution in Iraq
Sep 17, 2014, 5:22 PM
More Blog Posts
Copyright 2015 DailyTech LLC. -
Terms, Conditions & Privacy Information