Lucy's Family is Complete: Hominid Trio Offer Insight Into Human Evolution
June 22, 2010 10:38 AM
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An artist's scupting of A. afarensis, based on the earlier Lucy skeleton.
(Source: Educa Madrid)
The bones of "Big Man"
(Source: Y. Haile Selassie et al./PNAS 2010)
"Whatever we’ve been saying about afarensis based on Lucy was mostly wrong."
Much like the revolution of modern astronomy in the late 1400s and early 1500s dissolved the notion that the Sun revolved around the Earth, a renaissance in paleontology is dissolving virtually any doubt that remained about man's origins. Another new discovery has just been completed, the latest of several high profile publications over only the last year.
is a male
, which has been discovered in Ethiopia’s Afar region. The skeleton joins the celebrated "Lucy" skeleton, unearthed by paleoanthropologists in 1974, and a child skeleton unearthed last year.
The ancient male, an ancestor of modern man, lived approximately 3.6 million years ago in the plains of Eastern Africa, according to several dating techniques. Yohannes Haile-Selassie of the Cleveland Museum of Natural History, who led the team, says the skeleton offers some major new insights into the species.
The skeleton has been nicknamed "Big Man" as it towers at 5 to 5½ feet tall over the much shorter 3½-foot-tall Lucy, who lived 3.2 million years ago. That large height deviation raises questions over which of the specimen is the norm in terms of height. The new skeleton was unearthed between 2005 and 2008 at a dig site only 48 km from where Lucy was found.
The skeleton also reveals new insights into the bone structure of the species. Big Man's 32 discovered bones reveal long legs, a narrow chest, and a inwardly curving back. All of these indicate that he walked much like a human and enjoyed a ground-based lifestyle. This is very different from the awkward gait that Lucy was thought to have. Lucy also had been thought to climb trees a great deal.
The shoulder blade of Big Man is quite different from chimpanzees or gorillas. And the ribs also appear human-like. All of these factors indicate a far different chest shape than the chimplike, funnel-shaped chest that reconstructions of the Lucy skeleton indicated.
While confusing perhaps in context with Lucy, the conclusion that ancient hominids were
chimplike is consistent with the analysis of the
that was conducted last year.
Professor Haile-Selassie states, "Whatever we’ve been saying about
based on Lucy was mostly wrong. The skeletal framework to enable efficient two-legged walking was established by the time her species had evolved."
Carol Ward of the University of Missouri in Columbia seems to agree with these conclusions, stating, "This beautiful
specimen confirms the unique skeletal shape of this species at a larger size than Lucy, in what appears to be a male."
While the discovery may have cleared up debate about whether Lucy was more chimplike or humanlike, the debate about gait is sure to continue. Harvard University anthropologist Daniel Lieberman states, "There’s nothing special I can see on this new find that will change anyone’s opinion."
Anthropologist Owen Lovejoy of Kent State University, however, believes that the discovery shows Big Man to be a good runner, which could have made the 3.6-million-year-old footprints found more than 30 years ago at Laetoli, Tanzania. Among the evidence supporting this hypothesis are Big Man's pelvis supported humanlike hamstring muscles and human-like arched feet.
The full study on the Big Man discovery is published
in the journal
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
A separate 3.3 million year old skeleton of a 3-year-old baby female
was presented four years ago. Nicknamed "Selam" (the word for "peace" in several African languages), the near-complete skeleton was found in 2000 south of the Awash river by a team led by Zeresenay Alemseged of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany.
The paper on that discovery was published in a 2006 edition of
and can be found
These discoveries add to the aforementioned recent discovery of "Ardi", the
, and the completion of an early
draft of the Neanderthal genome
. All of these wonderful discoveries have helped to blow away the fog of uncertainty surrounding human evolution and offered a much clearer picture of how man arrived at its current form after a slow process of evolution that took millions of years.
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RE: how's your egocentrism now?
6/22/2010 3:18:40 PM
Guys, I don't get the emphasis on distinction between law and religion. Religion is full of rules which I believe do play a great role in keeping society in order. Whether it's the very oppressive versions of Islam you see in some nations that people have to follow strictly, or the 10 commandments. Those are pretty "in your face" laws. If you're trying to use the obvious surface distinctions, then I can't seem to see the purpose of that. What I mean is that basically they are all rules to bring order.
As a side, it also seems to me that alot of "laws" may have origins in religion, or are at least further emphasized or strengthened by religion.
Also, regarding all the talk about society going into chaos without religion or law, it's not that if u take away religion or law that the floodgates will suddenly be open. It's the fact that our morality, what we learn and see growing up are due to those rules. We are shaped by it whether directly or indirectly as a mass societal effect and passed through generations. Hypothetically, if we were to stop teaching it to our children and also somehow isolate them from society's effect, i believe it would be a different society than if we didn't have the rules. I don't know how much, but i believe it would be significant enough to recognize the need for rules.
Humans do act very differently in different cultures and religions. I think it would be easier for people to accept if you didn't use the word "evil". Some South American civilizations were brutal. Tons of cultures have or had polygamy. In the past, there were many cultures in which there was a narrower definition of murder than we have now. So humans are animals and our natural instincts are our natural instincts. Laws and religions provide the rules to help shape macro and micro level morality. And so in that sense, if taken away, should have a big negative impact on how people conduct themselves.
"This is about the Internet. Everything on the Internet is encrypted. This is not a BlackBerry-only issue. If they can't deal with the Internet, they should shut it off." -- RIM co-CEO Michael Lazaridis
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