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Study predicts that in 400 years average woman will weigh nearly 1 kg more, be 2 cm (almost an inch) shorter

A strong body of evidence exists that humans are continually evolving a diverse fashion in response to various environmental influences.  Despite skepticism from some who blindly reject such studies for various dogmatic reasons, human evolution does appear to be happening.  And researchers in the fields of genetics and evolutionary biology are revealing exciting insights into what man (and woman) may look like in the future.

A new study from Yale University researchers offers some intriguing and unusual conclusions about where human evolution may be headed.  A new study analyzing a population of 14,000 residents of the Massachusetts town of Framingham indicates that women are being naturally selected to be shorter and chubbier, have children younger, and have lower cholesterol and blood pressure.

The complex study came to these conclusions by looking at the medical records of 2,238 female participants, spread across two generations (starting in 1948) and looking at their medical history when they reached menopause.  The study examined those that successfully reproduced and looked at what traits influenced their reproductive success.  It also made adjustments for income, education and lifestyle choices such as smoking, before applying correlations to determine the direction of evolution.  They also looked at secondary effects, i.e. whether low blood pressure led to younger sexual maturity, or whether the paths were independent.

Based on the results women in the third generation of the study, currently ongoing, are expected to begin their first period a month earlier, and enter menopause a full month later than their mothers and grandmothers, on average.  Heaviness proved to be also be selected, as heavier women have more children, on average.

Professor Stephen Stearns, an evolutionary biologist at Yale University and coauthor of the study states, "The idea that natural selection has stopped operating in humans because we have gotten better at keeping people alive is just plain wrong.  It's interesting that the underlying biological framework is still detectable beneath the culture."

The Yale experts predict that based on the current trends, in the year 2409AD, the average woman in Framingham will be 2 cm  (almost 1 inch) shorter and 1 kg heavier (approximately 2.5 lb).  Women in 2409 AD are predicted to have their period 5 months earlier and to go into menopause 10 months later -- almost a full year later.

Sean G. Byars, a post-doctoral researcher at Yale, was lead author of the paper, and researchers from University of Pennsylvania and the Boston University School of Medicine also contributed to it.  The intriguing study was funded by Yale University and was published in a prestigious journal -- the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences -- on October 19.


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By William Gaatjes on 11/4/2009 9:34:10 PM , Rating: 1
Indeed. How you live your life influences your offspring. Although for example alcohol abuse may not effect your children's dna, When you children have children, your grandchildren can be affected. Even living on a certain diet can cause this effect. In essence this means that you are what you eat, but at certain right situations, your children become what you eat as well.

To quote myself :
quote:
That people realize that what negative thing they do, lives on beyond tomorrow in their offspring.


Because environmental effects will be imprinted in your dna when :

A: The egg cells are formed in the human female fetus .

B: When the spermatogonium (sperm stem cells) are formed in the adolescent human male.

This means that social and environmental factors affect your DNA. It is not like you mutate in a heavy way, it is more that the amount of gene expression alters for the affected genes. Our DNA is not a basic blue print, many genes are switched on simultaneously , reducing the amounts of genes needed. But making our gene expression far more complex and thus at the same time more susceptible to the environment we live in.

It is called epigenetics.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epigenetics

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chromosome_15_(human)

An example is that the deletion or malfunction of 1 gene on chromosome 15 can cause 2 different genetic disorders.
Because the same gene is used differently depending if it is from your father or mother.

To do a little speculation :

In essence if you want to make true clones through vertical gene transfer not susceptible to the environment , you would have to create an entire new human being with DNA sequences for every step in that we are formed. Instead of needing multiple genes in the right amount simultaneously, we would need for every step one gene that is to be turned on or off. That would however possibly make our dna huge.


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