Perhaps the single most important metric
presented was the amount of servers that Nissan was purchasing over a
five year period. Previously Nissan had purchased 159 servers
for the plants, in a five-year span. Using virtualization,
they dropped this number to 28 servers to be purchased every five
years. In other words, they cut their server purchases by 80
percent over a five year cycle -- yielding major cost, energy and
The Nissan server farm is a diverse mix of
database servers, application servers, and other specialized servers
like print servers. These servers send signals to over 5,000
devices on the floor including HMIs (wired and wireless), PLCs,
Marquees, Wireless PDAs, Wireless Scanners, utility meters,
identification equipment (e.g. Smarteye readers/RFID readers) and
printers, as well as additional signals that go to plant robots.
Still other servers run applications that track metrics and help cut
costs, or send build data to the plant floor employees.
internal customers -- production, maintenance, and other departments
-- had been consistently demanding more quality, tracking, and cost
management applications. Many of these applications couldn't
coexist on the same server. So while some servers had idle
resources, instead new servers had to be purchased. Describes
Matt Slipher, Systems Engineer at Nissan, "Say a customer comes
up to me and says 'I have this new application (or system) which I
want to put in the system.' I wouldn't just buy one server -- I
would buy three."
"It was getting out of
control," adds Phil D'Antonio, manager of Conveyors and Controls
Engineering at Nissan (NA).
The server farm ballooned to 159
servers. At that point Nissan engineers decided they had to
act. The pressure was high, though. Any upgraded
architecture would have to withstand a rigorous workload. As
Phil D'Antonio states, "If those servers stop, the metal in the
building stops. They are very important -- mission
After careful analysis, a virtualization
scheme was devised. For hypervisor software, Nissan
investigated Microsoft's Hyper-V and a competitive offering from a
"leading competitor" (VMWare). In the end the two
matched up about evenly in performance, but the Microsoft
virtualization software prevailed as Nissan's systems already ran
Microsoft SQL clusters, web servers, and other Microsoft products,
making management easier with Hyper-V.
For hardware, 20 Dell
R900, and 8 Dell 2950 rack servers were purchased. The Dell
servers provided four Xeon quad-core Intel processors per server, for
a total of 16 CPU cores per server. The servers were arrange in
6 server clusters with 4 active servers, with 32 GB of memory each,
and 2 passive servers, with 64 GB of memory each. Each server
has a 4 Gbit/s HBA connection and four 4 Gbit/s ethernet NIC
The servers handle a lot of legacy software --
Nissan engineers during the upgrade moved away from Windows Server
NT, but they still have other applications running on older OS's.
States Matt Slipher, "We do have what I would call a lot of
legacy systems. A lot are running [Windows Server] 2003.
To give an example, some of our database servers run [Windows Server]
2003, and some of our applications servers run [Windows Server]
Thanks to virtualization all of those systems are
running side by side now, as separate VM's on coexisting on the same
servers, with little unused resources. The architecture has
also been commonized, reducing administration workload.
Engineers now are being moved from IT administration tasks to
deploying new applications on the floor and other plant
improvements. The entire transition to the new architecture
took only 12 months.
For other companies considering
virtualization, but unsure of the costs and benefits, Matt Slipher
suggests, "Make your own judgement. Get your tools and
test them. We got [competitive offerings] and tested them...
[For us] Hyper-V was less of a learning curve."
Update 1 (Aug. 21, 10:20 a.m.):
Based on user feedback, I got back in touch with Nissan to get a few more details. The company is going with EMC for their SAN and backup hardware. Their SAN uses 2 mirrored EMC CLARiiON 240s. The CLARiiON 240 allows for easy scaling up to 231 TB of storage.
For backup, the plants are using an on-site EMC DL210 virtual tape library with EMC's Networker backup software. The DL210, was among the first virtual tape libraries to use SATA drives to cut costs. It launched in 2006 with a retail price of $50,000 at launch and has 4-24 TB of space.