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Part of Kepler's CCD array  (Source: NASA)
Kepler spacecraft will detect small planets close to the size of earth.

Humanity has wondered about the heavens above since before recorded history. Recently, the discovery of hundred of planets in other star systems has sparked extraordinary interest in determining the odds of extraterrestrial life.

The Kepler mission will seek to explain one part of the puzzle by observing the brightness of over 100,000 stars over the next forty-two months. In doing so, it will be able to track  earth-sized planets, generating future targets of interest for more advanced future space observatories like the Terrestrial Planet Finder and the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna.

Nearly all of the extrasolar planets detected thus far are giant planets the size of Jupiter or larger. Kepler will look for planets 30 to 600 times less massive, closer to the size of Earth and more likely to support life.

All planets in stable orbits transit across their star during their own unique annual cycle. This causes a dip in the star's apparent magnitude for an observer in the same plane. By timing these transits, the orbit and length of year can be calculated. The orbit of a planet can be used to determine if it lies within the "zone of life", where it is close enough to the sun to support liquid water, yet far enough that potential life is not destroyed by it.

"Kepler's mission is to determine whether Earth-size planets in the habitable zone of other stars are frequent or rare; whether life in our Milky Way galaxy is likely to be frequent or rare", said William Borucki, NASA's Principal Investigator on the Kepler Mission.

While Kepler will only focus on a small area of the sky, its results will be enough to enable accurate estimates of the number of earth-sized planets in our galaxy.

Kepler will use an array of 42 CCD (charge-coupled device) cameras, each measuring 50x25 mm. With a resolution of 1024x2200 each, Kepler has a total resolution of approximately 95 megapixels.
 
CCD cameras are used in most digital cameras and optical scanners. They are also used in astronomy and in night-vision devices due to their sensitivity to the ultraviolet and infrared ranges of light.

Mission operations will be conducted by NASA's Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, California, and are included as part of the $600 million total mission cost. Ames will contact the Kepler spacecraft twice a week using the X-band for command updates as well as system status updates. Scientific data is only downloaded once a month using the Ka-band, at a data rate of up to 4.33 Mb/s. To conserve bandwidth, Kepler will conduct partial analysis on board and only transmit data of interest to researchers.

The Kepler spacecraft will be launched at 2250 Eastern Standard Time from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. It will use the Delta II multi-stage rocket, which has flown 140 missions while achieving a success rate of almost 99 percent.
 
Instead of a typical earth orbit, it will launch Kepler into an earth trailing orbit in order to block light from the sun and the moon. This orbit also avoids gravitational perturbations inherent in an Earth orbit, thus allowing for additional platform stability.

The Kepler Mission is named for Johannes Kepler, best known for his Laws of Planetary Motion.

Updated 3/8/2009

The Kepler spacecraft was launched successfully aboard a Delta II rocket in the D2925-10L launch configuration from pad 17B at 22:49:57 EST on Friday March 6th. The three-stage launch vehicle had nine additional solid rocket boosters, six for the first stage and three for the second stage. The third stage boosted  the Kepler payload to its heliocentric orbit trailing Earth. Two months of testing and systems verification will occur for the next two months before Kepler begins its inspiring mission.

 



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RE: What if Kepler Finds Earth like Planets!
By MRwizard on 3/9/2009 7:39:40 AM , Rating: 2
point of view 1:Hold on, who says they'll want to leave the space ship. i mean that is their home now, not earth or the new planet.

Point of view 2: we could just use psychology to trick 'em all into wanting to go to the new planet. hehe

Point of view 3: why the hell WOULDN'T we go colinize another planet in this way. at the moment it is the only possible way to do it.

point of view 4: In the future, we would have machines do our bidding instead. send a probe to point x in the sky that can deploy a colony pack and us shortly behind to "pollute" our new world. Heck, there might be sanctions on how many people can populate a planet at one single time.

But personaly: i really beleive that our way of colinizing anything in space, will be very much dependant on how quickly we can get there. Our propulsion technology MUST be able to get us to a new planet by getting us there "same day" type effort. only then can we really have people going to a planet to colinize.
If it takes us 2 or more generations to get to a planet, then we are going to have psychological problems.No, not crazy people (OK possibly!) - just people who don't want to be there and we will get people that do want to be there to the point they don't want to leave. i don't see a problem with the latter as they can become part of the ships crew, engineers, mechanics, janitors....

lol, how annoying would that kid be asking "are we there yet?" the whole time?

on my last note, we are nearly able to transport humans through space in greater distances than the moon - another generation or 2 will see people on mars :)


RE: What if Kepler Finds Earth like Planets!
By JonnyDough on 3/9/2009 10:56:36 AM , Rating: 2
Forget propulsion and space ships. We'll need a gateway. Quantum physics have already allowed us to send messages from point A to point B through particle property swapping (without the message traveling in between points). It is only a matter of time before we understand things (physics) in ways we have yet to even imagine. The particle accelerators we've built will aid us in all sorts of things like travel, genetics, creation of materials/refinement, etc.


By MRwizard on 3/10/2009 6:42:23 AM , Rating: 2
thats a heck of good point, i totally gorgot about that, but i wouldn't forget about spaceships completely. you still have to get to the planet in the first place to build point b. very interesting tho since we could just send robots to do a mans job and reap the rewards...


By Farfignewton on 3/9/2009 12:07:26 PM , Rating: 2
quote:
point of view 1:Hold on, who says they'll want to leave the space ship. i mean that is their home now, not earth or the new planet.


I'd say human nature pretty much guarantees some (maybe even most) of those people are going to be pretty pissed about being stuck on a spaceship their entire life as opposed to living on a perfectly good planet. When my father moved our family from central California to play drill instructor for the army, he made central Kansas our "home". Nobody liked it. It caused a hell of a lot of strife even before we left, and it only took two years of my life that I will NEVER get back to leave. ;)

quote:
Point of view 2: we could just use psychology to trick 'em all into wanting to go to the new planet. hehe


Compared to the act of condemning them to life on a spaceship in the first place, I see this as only a very minor ethical problem. :D

quote:
Point of view 3: why the hell WOULDN'T we go colinize another planet in this way. at the moment it is the only possible way to do it.


For a one word answer - Mutiny. I'm sure we all agree that our lives are ours to do with more or less as we please. However, I do not feel that under present circumstances I have any right to commit my descendants to such a venture, nor do I believe that it would be permitted by our current society/government, at least here in the U.S. Maybe I'm wrong.

quote:
But personaly: i really beleive that our way of colinizing anything in space, will be very much dependant on how quickly we can get there. Our propulsion technology MUST be able to get us to a new planet by getting us there "same day" type effort. only then can we really have people going to a planet to colinize.


I largely agree, though I'd say you're being a bit pessimistic. I think there are probably loads of people who would be undaunted by a journey of five years or so.


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