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The new solar coating, made from a special nanomaterial may not look like much, but it helps solar cells to be 42 percent more efficient, making them close to being cost competitive. Best of all it can be easily produced with existing infrastructure.  (Source: Rensselaer/Shawn Lin)
New coated cell 43 percent more efficient, can be easily produced with current production lines

Solar breakthroughs are relatively commonplace.  However, typically they are iterative -- small increases by a percent or two in efficiency.  Researchers at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute have invented a new solar cell that is anything but iterative as it blows away past offerings by a large margin; something RPI calls a "game-changer" for the solar business.

Against relatively cheap coal power, solar -- like nuclear and wind -- has struggled to compete from a purely economic standpoint.  Worse yet, it trails wind and nuclear in terms of how close it is to being cost competitive.  The light at the end of the tunnel is that solar have shown the highest gains in efficiency of any alternative energy source, making its future look very bright.

The new RPI solar cell is a normal cell covered in a special anti-reflective coating which traps sunlight from nearly every angle and part of the spectrum.  The new cell is near perfect; it absorbs 96.21 percent of the sunlight shined on it, while a normal cell could only absorb 67.4 percent.  That 43 percent efficiency boost, coupled with mass production, if properly implemented could place solar on the verge of competing unsubsidized with coal power, at last.

Shawn-Yu Lin, professor of physics at Rensselaer and a member of the university’s Future Chips Constellation describes the breakthrough, stating, "To get maximum efficiency when converting solar power into electricity, you want a solar panel that can absorb nearly every single photon of light, regardless of the sun’s position in the sky.  Our new antireflective coating makes this possible."

Most materials have a mixture of light absorbing (anti-reflective) and light reflecting properties, depending on the angle and wavelength of light.  For example, eyeglasses allow light to pass through on direct angles, but begin to reflect light at sharper angles.  Solar panels in their current form operate with similar mixed character.  In order to improve efficiency, mechanical components must be added to turn to panel to face the sun.  This system entails significant cost and loss of energy efficiency, as well as a great maintenance burden.

With Professor Lin's discovery, the world's first cost-efficient static solar arrays could be produced.  No matter what angle the sun was at, nearly all sunlight would be absorbed and converted to power.  Professor Lin describes, "At the beginning of the project, we asked ‘would it be possible to create a single antireflective structure that can work from all angles?’ Then we attacked the problem from a fundamental perspective, tested and fine-tuned our theory, and created a working device."

Rensselaer physics graduate student Mei-Ling Kuo helped Professor Lin investigate various antireflective coatings.  Their eventual choice was a nanomaterial, consisting of several fine anti-reflective sheets.  Normal antireflective coatings consist of one sheet, which absorbs light at a specific wavelength.  By stacking seven separate layers into a composite coat, they were able to absorb nearly the entire spectrum.  Furthermore, the staggered nature of the layers "bent" the flow of sunlight to a favorable angle, trapping it in the coating.  This means that if light manages to reflect off a lower layer, it will be sent back down by the upper layers.

Each layer was made from a special nanomaterial consisting of silicon dioxide and titanium dioxide nanorods positioned at an oblique angle.  The material was grown through standard chemical vapor deposition techniques, and could be applied to the manufacturing of most standard solar cells, including III-V multi-junction and cadmium telluride cells.

On a microscopic level the nanomaterial looks like a forest of tiny, densely packed trees.  Each layer is 50 nm to 100 nm thick.

The team hopes to bring their technology quickly to market, as it will require little in the way of manufacturing line changes. The research is detailed in the paper "Realization of a Near Perfect Antireflection Coating for Silicon Solar Energy", published in the journal Optics Letters.

Besides Lin and Kuo, the other researchers listed as co-authors on the paper were E. Fred Schubert, Wellfleet Senior Constellation Professor of Future Chips at Rensselaer; Research Assistant Professor Jong Kyu Kim; physics graduate student David Poxson; and electrical engineering graduate student Frank Mont.

The research was funded with the help of funding from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Basic Energy Sciences, as well as the U.S. Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

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RE: so how about actual efficiency?
By Chipper Smoltz DT on 11/5/2008 10:33:37 AM , Rating: 2
Lots of available options for us, the better. Sure the sun might not be shining all the time but if it's sunny the energy could be stored or the excess could be diverted to the grid.

It's funny and I know this is a crazy idea but if it's raining maybe we could collect and store energy too when each drop of rain hits some material... comparing rain drops to light photons in a way.. hahaha

Light photons are particles of light right?... are there particles for darkness too or non-light? There's none that I know of but this is due to my limited knowledge. =(

Imagine if there was, then we could utilize the solar cells at night and "darkness" cells during night... then wind turbines during windy days and nights and "rain panels" when it's raining... =))

RE: so how about actual efficiency?
By Parhel on 11/5/2008 10:41:07 AM , Rating: 5
If there are darkness particles like photons, then there might also be non-rain drops. Then, we could have non-rain panels that would generate energy whenever it isn't raining.

RE: so how about actual efficiency?
By Chipper Smoltz DT on 11/5/2008 11:04:23 AM , Rating: 2
Hahaha... =))

But what if there's something in darkness that could also be used to harness some form of energy eh....

As for the raindrops like photons of light... just wishful thinking eh? Seems like everything now could be converted to energy and stored in some device. Heck, maybe people walking can be a source of energy like if a "sidewalk" was built with pressure plates then each step on the pressure plate would be like activating something which would convert that to stored energy...

By TOAOCyrus on 11/5/2008 11:14:34 AM , Rating: 2
Yeah well darkness is the lack of light.. so no.

RE: so how about actual efficiency?
By theapparition on 11/5/2008 11:45:19 AM , Rating: 2
Heck, maybe people walking can be a source of energy like if a "sidewalk" was built with pressure plates then each step on the pressure plate would be like activating something which would convert that to stored energy...

Already done. They've taken floor panels and use piezo-electric elements to convert motion into electricity. Some universities have proposed it for sidewalks, but cost is far too prohibitive.

In fact, I think DT ran an article about some club in Europe that used similar panels that lit up as people danced on them.

By Veerappan on 11/5/2008 2:55:46 PM , Rating: 2
And while we're at it, you could probably hook up some sort of small generator to the vertical spout of your rain gutters, and use the momentum of the water that is draining to generate a few watts.

It would probably be cost ineffective, and not actually be active often, but so is the idea about using piezo-electric generators as shingles on your roof.

Of course the installation/development of the drain spout generator would cost much less than re-doing your entire roof as well.

RE: so how about actual efficiency?
By Raidin on 11/5/2008 1:04:05 PM , Rating: 2
Your rain-power idea is perfectly sound, just needs to be implemented differently. If you tried to capture the power of every rain drop on it's own, it would be very wasteful, because you'd need incredibly light material to negate as much of the force the rain drop exerts to simply move the material to create energy as possible, and you'd need to do this for as many rain drops as possible, which means an insane surface area for it to be remotely feasible or practical.

Instead, you could build a large cone to capture incoming rain and send it to a thin tube which has a paddle wheel at the end, and then you'd have yourself a mini hydroelectric power plant. =)

As far as 'dark' particles, no such thing. Light is made up of photons, darkness is made up of the lack of those photons being present. Darkness is the absence of light.

The thing most people don't usually know is that a small amount of light covering only a fraction of our planet has the potential to power the entire planet. If we get solar cells to a very high efficiency rating of light to power conversion, it wouldn't matter too much when it's dark, as the Sun will always be shining somewhere, which means power can be collected 24/7, it would just need to be distributed across the globe. This would allow virtually every solar plant on Earth to aid in powering the entire world.

Too bad we're a long way from that day.

RE: so how about actual efficiency?
By Chipper Smoltz DT on 11/5/2008 3:06:52 PM , Rating: 2
Hey thanks for the nice reply... I appreciate it. =)

I have this other weird idea... what if we could convert sound energy into electrical energy which could be stored. Just as a microphone amplifies sound by using "something" combined with an electric current.

Maybe what we could do is set up "gadgets" like these in very noisy areas and use all those noise to convert it into electrical energy and store them as well in a certain medium.

Are sound waves similar to light waves in that they are both a particle and a wave? Coz its like the inside of the human ear right? it's like a miniature thing that "vibrates" or something like that which causes us to hear sounds in the first place?

RE: so how about actual efficiency?
By Raidin on 11/5/2008 3:47:08 PM , Rating: 1
You're quite welcome.

Sound is different than light in terms of it's makeup. Sound is simply a vibration in a medium, moving as a wave. In our case, that medium is air, or the atmosphere in general.

You could theoretically set up a large sheet of super-thing, super-light material that could vibrate with any sound that passes through it (like a large version of an inner ear, and translate those vibrations to energy. problem is, most sound waves have inherently low energy potential, so you couldn't really build any useful power out of it. You'd need a lot of loud sound waves, and even then, you just might be able to power a tiny light bulb, if I am using the right scale in my head.

It's just not practical.

RE: so how about actual efficiency?
By Starcub on 11/7/2008 10:29:14 PM , Rating: 2
That "something" is a piezoelectric material. The material physically deforms due to physical stresses on the material's electronic lattice (usually due to acoustic vibration, but can be optically generated as well). As a result electrons are kicked out of the bonds and carried away by an externally applied power source. They are good signal detectors, but not good power generators.

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