backtop


Print 104 comment(s) - last by wordsworm.. on Aug 17 at 9:26 PM


A microscope image of the genetically modified bacterias shows a number of diesel molecules which it is forming.  (Source: CNN)

Biochemist Stephen del Cardayre is the vice president of research and development at LS9. He holds a vial of his company's prized bacteria. The brown fluid at the top of the vial is diesel that the bacteria excreted, mixed with water.  (Source: CNN)
Genetic engineering yields hope for fossil fuel replacement

DailyTech previously covered startup LS9 Inc.'s efforts to genetically engineer microbes to produce synthetic fuels.  After initial efforts to genetically modify both yeast and bacteria to produce long-chain hydrocarbons, they have since focused their efforts on a particular common bacterium -- E. Coli.

E. Coli is commonly found in feces, and the LS9 researchers have succeeded in a rather ironic goal -- genetically modifying the bacteria to excrete diesel fuel.  After much research and genetic modification, LS9 says it has used a variety of common sugar metabolic pathways to force E. Coli to convert virtually any sugar-containing substance in part to carbon chains virtually indistinguishable with diesel.

The bacteria "poop" out this black gold, while using part of the sugar to fuel their growth and reproduction as well.  The net result is that any carbon source can be turned into synthetic fuel by the economic bacteria. 

Biochemist Stephen del Cardayre, LS9 vice president of research and development, says his company has come a long way.  He states, "We started in my garage two years ago, and we're producing barrels today, so things are moving pretty quickly."

He explains the process of creating the microbes, stating, "So these are bacteria that have been engineered to produce oil.  They started off like regular lab bacteria that didn't produce oil, but we took genes from nature, we engineered them a bit [and] put them into this organism so that we can convert sugar to oil."

While the microbes are currently only producing diesel fuel, they could easily be tuned to produce gasoline or jet fuel according to Mr. Cardayre.  Best of all, the bacteria don't have to use simple sugars such as corn, a major criticism of the ethanol infrastructure.  The increased demand for corn by the ethanol industry is accused of raising food prices.  Instead they can use a variety of "foods" including sugar cane, landscaping waste, wheat straw, and wood chips.    The microbes used are a "friendly" noninfectious type of E. Coli that lack the proteins needed to invade the human body, which some strains of E. Coli are capable of doing.

Robert McCormick, principal engineer at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Lab in Colorado remains skeptical of LS9's claims.  He adds, "Scalability is really the critical issue.  If you've got something that you can make work in a test tube, that's good, but you've got to be able to make it work on a very large scale to have an impact on our petroleum imports."

LS9 is not only confident they can scale the technology, but they also believe that their oil will be significant to the oil found in fossil fuel deposits.  Typical oil deposits contain significant amounts of sulfur that get released into the atmosphere, creating acid rain which destroys forests, limestone, marble, and damages lake ecosystems.  It also contains benzene, a carcinogen that can cause cancer even in very small quantities.

The E. Coli produced diesel has none of these unwanted extras, it's just pure black gold.  Unlike ethanol, it can be pumped along existing infrastructure, LS9 is quick to point out.

While they hope to be entering commercial level production in the next couple years, they acknowledge that even if they continue their path of unlikely and rapid success, their technology is not a magical solution to the global energy crisis.  Mr. Cardayre states, "I think that the answer to reducing our petroleum-import problem and reducing the carbon emissions from transportation is really threefold.  It involves replacement fuels like biofuels, it involves using much more efficient vehicles than we use today, and it involves driving less."

He says that LS9's success and continued prospects are only thanks to constant collaboration by a diverse team of experts from many different professions.  He continues, "The fun of the challenge from the science perspective is that you do have farmers and biologists and entomologists, and biochemists and chemical engineers, and process engineers and business people and investors all working to solve this, and it ranges anywhere from a political issue to a technical issue."



Comments     Threshold


This article is over a month old, voting and posting comments is disabled

RE: LS9? GM will sue...
By Solandri on 8/13/2008 1:19:42 AM , Rating: 5
quote:
Also, finding ways to make more hydrocarbon gas doesn't help a damn thing. It's just the same old POLLUTION we're dealing with now. Now if they can make E.Coli eat garbage and output pure hydrogen then we have something. That's impossible since this biotech is simply converting chains of carbon into different types. Maybe they can get it to poop plastic. Plastic is where a lot of our beloved oil goes and its handy as hell.

Our civilization needs to stop burning hydrocarbons because thats the MAIN problem.

Wow. Just... wow.

First, all of life depends on burning hydrocarbons. Your body takes sugars (which are hydrocrabons) that you eat, combines them with oxygen that you breathe, to "burn" the hydrogen off the hydrocarbons yielding (for the most part) water, CO2, and energy.

The wood you burn in the fireplace goes through the same process. Wood (cellulose) is basically just long chains of sugar glued together. When you burn it, it combines with oxygen in the air to yield (for the most part) water, CO2, and energy. There's a bit more other stuff created because the reaction is uncontrolled and at a higher temperature. And yes, wood is just sugar. The only reason you can't eat it is because your body can't break apart the long cellulose chains. Herbivores and termites have bacteria in their gut who break the cellulose into shorter sugars, which they can then digest.

Anyhow, if you process the cellulose, you get hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline and diesel. Those fuels are packed full of energy because they originated as sugars in the form of cellulose. One way to process it is through temperature and pressure which makes the oil we find underground. The bacteria these guys have come up with are another way.

There is nothing wrong with burning hydrocarbons if they're created in a sustainable manner. The entirety of life on this planet depends on that very process. Hydrocarbons are just a chemical battery (a very efficient one at that) which plants use to store the energy they collect from sunlight. Pure hydrogen is a very difficult substance to work with. It's gaseous at room temperature and pressure, meaning it's very sparse - so it's difficult to get a lot of energy into a small space using it. It's a very small molecule so it leaks through lots of things that are otherwise airtight and watertight. And it rises in the air so any you lose through leakage is gone forever (it eventually escapes into space).

Life on earth has gotten around these problems by combining hydrogen with other elements which make it denser and more manageable, primarily sugars. Hydrocarbon fuels such as methane, gasoline, diesel, etc. are really not much different.


RE: LS9? GM will sue...
By William Gaatjes on 8/13/2008 4:42:45 AM , Rating: 2
More questions :

Why is hydrogen so popular in nature ?

If i google a little i find this :
It is abundant, but has it not something to do with the reactivity of the protium version ? It is very easy to use the energy from hydrogen. Carbon bonds are very durable and maybe even be the toughest element of all because of the configuration of the electrons in the orbitals.
Combined we have 1 very reactive element with 1 very stable element that can be switched on and off if you know how.
Life is fun :)


RE: LS9? GM will sue...
By Tech Go Green on 8/14/2008 4:22:37 AM , Rating: 2
You seem to be aware of the molecular implications... I have an issue to discuss with you.

I'm trying to conceptualize exactly how LS9 is managing to turn cellulose into diesel fuel. From what I found on their official site:

quote:
LS9 has developed a new means of efficiently converting fatty acid intermediates into petroleum replacement products via fermentation of renewable sugars. LS9 has also discovered and engineered a new class of enzymes and their associated genes to efficiently convert fatty acids into hydrocarbons.

Also from the website:

quote:
Starting from raw, natural sources of sugar such as sugar cane and cellulosic biomass , these renewable fuels will fundamentally change the biofuels landscape and set the stage for widespread product adoption and petroleum displacement.

There seems to be a discrepancy as far as the actual source of the fuel/hydrocarbon. Aren't fatty acids vastly vastly different from sugars? There seems to be fermentation involved... so they are converting some type of alcohol into a fatty acid intermediate? And then breaking that down? Sounds crazy. Cellulose as the starting material surprises me. It's a polysaccharide chock full of oxygen molecules -- even HELD TOGETHER by oxygen -- how in the world are they ending up with fatty acids and their long hydrocarbon chains???


RE: LS9? GM will sue...
By William Gaatjes on 8/14/2008 6:17:42 AM , Rating: 2
I am sure you where not asking me but i was interested in the answer to your question as well and thought i might as well post it. I am not a chemist, but when i google on fatty acids i found a lot of websites.

Now you have to verify this yourself but you can find some information from this selection.

http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/551fattyaci...
I qoute:

quote:
Fatty acids are merely carboxylic acids with long hydrocarbon chains. The hydrocarbon chain length may vary from 10-30 carbons (most usual is 12-18).


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatty_acid

I qoute :

quote:
Saturated fatty acids do not contain any double bonds or other functional groups along the chain. The term "saturated" refers to hydrogen, in that all carbons (apart from the carboxylic acid [-COOH] group) contain as many hydrogens as possible. In other words, the omega (?) end contains 3 hydrogens (CH3-), and each carbon within the chain contains 2 hydrogen atoms.


I woud say the hydrocarbons are stripped by some enzymes.
And next other enzymes build these hydrocarbons to the chemical shape we need. Just like a manufacturer process.


RE: LS9? GM will sue...
By William Gaatjes on 8/14/2008 6:22:39 AM , Rating: 2
And i found this...

http://www.biomatnet.org/secure/Fair/S687.htm

I quote:

quote:
Novel fatty acids sugar esters for food and cosmetics Objectives Within the EC AIR research project AIR-CT94-2291 Production of sugar fatty acid esters from renewable agricultural resources: an integrated optimisation of enzymatic-purification processes and of surfactive properties, INPL developed an efficient enzymatic process for the synthesis of novel sugar esters based on the use of lipases. The carbohydrate surfactants, made of a hydrophilic sugar head group and a lipophilic fatty acid chain, constitute a novel family of non-ionic surfactants that can be used as detergents for washing purposes, as emulsifiers in food products and as active ingredients in personal care products such as shampoos, creams or soaps. Compared to chemically produced surfactants, enzymatically synthesised sugar esters show superiority in terms of product quality and purity, environmental compatibility and toxicological acceptability. Technical Approach The demonstration project aims at scaling up the enzymatic process for the production of the fatty acids sugar esters and to evaluate functional properties of the surfactants as food and cosmetic ingredients. First, the technical viability of the process based on the use of an immobilised lipase will be verified on sugar esters made from different sugars and fatty acids. Second, the physico-chemical and industrial properties of the sugar esters are to be evaluated in three selected application areas: cosmetics, bakery and ice cream. A major objective is to determine how these sugar esters compare with chemically synthesised surfactants, either alone or in combination. The production costs must also be established to further assess their market potential. Expected Results The production of kilogram quantities of sugar esters. In order to cover a wide range of HLB values (hydrophilic-lipophilic balance) of industrial interest, sugar esters will be produced, made from different sugars, fatty acids and vegetable oils. The evaluation of the physico-chemical characteristic, the biodegradability and the ecotoxicological properties of the sugar esters. The cost analysis of the new products as a function of composition and purity. The evaluation of the industrial properties of the sugar esters. It will first involve a general screening of the sugar esters as cosmetic, bakery and ice cream ingredients. For the most interesting of them, more extended evaluation of properties will be performed, using pilot plant production facilities and standard test procedures.


"When an individual makes a copy of a song for himself, I suppose we can say he stole a song." -- Sony BMG attorney Jennifer Pariser














botimage
Copyright 2014 DailyTech LLC. - RSS Feed | Advertise | About Us | Ethics | FAQ | Terms, Conditions & Privacy Information | Kristopher Kubicki