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An electronic microscope image of the rod-like nanoparticles formed by the microwave production method. They perform extremely well in low discharge scenarios, but are being tweaked after disappointing performance in rapid discharge scenarios.  (Source: Arumugam Manthiram, University of Texas at Austin )
Could an affordable electronic car be in the future?

Lithium-ion batteries are in high demand, seeing strong growth in the consumer electronics, power tools, and automotive industry.  Lithium-ion batteries are prized for their outstanding energy-to-weight ratios, their lack of memory effect, and their slower charge loss rate than other battery technologies.

The technology is particularly critical to the budding electric car business.  With such companies as Dyson, GM, and Lightning Car Company using the batteries in their upcoming commercial releases the future of the electric car in the short term is riding on lithium-ion technology. 

Unfortunately, the costs of lithium-ion batteries are currently quite high.  An analyst estimated that the much-anticipated Chevy Volt's battery pack would cost nearly $10,000; about a fourth of the total projected cost.  The pressing demand from a variety of industries has fueled lithium-ion prices to rise even higher.

Fortunately relief is in sight, thanks to a processing breakthrough from University of Texas at Austin.  The researchers found a way to possibly transform the long and complicated baking process involved in one of the more common lithium-ion battery materials into a quick and easy process.

Originally, most lithium-ion batteries used lithium cobalt oxide.  Most of the computer industry still relies on this material; however, the automotive industry has turned to lithium iron phosphate, which is considered more attractive as iron is cheaper than cobalt.  It is also safer than the more fire-prone lithium cobalt oxide, and is capable of being crafted to release charge faster.  A downside is it stores slightly less charge.

Companies have invested big in developing and bringing lithium iron phosphate to the market.  A123 Systems, the Watertown, MA startup that is manufacturing the Chevy Volt's battery, has already commercially offered lithium iron phosphate batteries for power tools.  It has managed to raise $148M USD in investment capital to help fund its efforts.

With current technology, the biggest downside to the lithium iron phosphate is the manufacturing.  Currently, the process takes hours of baking at temperatures in excess of 700 °C.  The extra manpower and effort required due to this has meant that Lithium iron phosphate batteries, which should from a materials perspective be much cheaper than lithium cobalt oxide, are actually more expensive than their competitor.

Led by Professor Arumugam Manthiram, a U of T professor of materials engineering, the researchers at U of T examined how a microwave could be used to speed the cooking process.  The results were dramatic.

The team first mixed conventional materials -- lithium hydroxide, iron acetate, and phosphoric acid -- in a solvent.  They then popped the mixture in the microwave for about five minutes, which heated the mix to about 300 °C. 

The process yielded high performing rod shaped nanoparticles of lithium iron phosphate.  The best nanoparticles were found to be approximately 100 nm long and just 25 nm wide.  The small size allows the ion exchange to be performed more easily.  The finished particles were then covered with an electrically conductive polymer doped with sulfonic acid to improve performance.

The new particles performed extremely well in low-discharge scenarios.  The material achieved a capacity of 166 milliamp hours per gram, amazingly close to the 170 milliamp hours per gram theoretical capacity.  High discharge scenarios were not so friendly to the new material, but Professor Manthiram says that will be fixable.  He says new versions have already shown improvement in this metric.

It is unclear exactly how much will be saved using the new method.  With the short time higher production should be possible, and the lower temperatures will reduce energy demands, both effects that should help to lower the cost of production.  Some are skeptical, though; whether the material will save much at all.  Stanley Whittingham a professor of chemistry, materials science, and engineering at the State University of New York, at Binghamton warns that the savings may be offset by the polymer cost and the cost of the changes necessary to the production.

Professor Manthiram is also exploring other lithium ion materials and has developed two key improvements on other materials.  He is working with an Austin, TX based startup, ActaCell to commercialize his tech.  The startup has licensed some of his technology with the help of the $5.58M USD in startup funds in has raised, but declined to specify which technologies or whether the new lithium iron phosphate production technology had been licensed yet.

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RE: Electric is the future
By Doormat on 8/1/2008 1:19:10 AM , Rating: 2
The problem starts much, much sooner than when 75% of the nation's fleet becomes electric. For a state like California, the problem begins as soon as more than a few hundred thousand EVs are on the road.

Again, the "problem" isn't one considering that 99% of recharging will be done at night. Go look at and see that even during the summer, they have ~40GW of capacity available and are only using 27.5GW between 12-6a.

1GW of power will recharge roughly 500,000 cars assuming 2kW recharge rate (120V/20A, 4-5 hr to recharge the Volt). There wont even be that many cars on the market until 2018, and thats throughout the US - CA wont get them all. GM is only planning for 10,000 cars the first year. Even if they do manage to get to 60,000 units in year two (I don't think they will) and work up to 100,000/yr, California would be likely to see at most half, or 100,000 cars, or roughly 200MW.

A lovely example of cherry picking statistics...however nationally, natural gas powers only 20% of our electric production. In most states, natural gas sees little use outside of peak hours.

Maybe Pickens is on to something... we can keep natural gas generation constant with wind picking up the load. In 2007 5GW of rated capacity (which roughly translates to 1.25GW of actual power) was installed. If that rate is kept constant, thats more than enough to accommodate the influx of PHEVs - 625,000 cars/yr.

RE: Electric is the future
By masher2 on 8/1/2008 10:53:21 AM , Rating: 2
> "...considering that 99% of recharging will be done at night."

A fallacious figure concocted wholly from thin air. More than 1% of the population works at night...and even those people who work during the day will occasionally charge during daylight hours. The idea we can force an entire nation to buy electric cars, and not plug any of them into during the day is just silly.

> "Maybe Pickens is on to something... "

He sure is....vast personal profits from a misguided national energy policy.

> "Even if they do manage to get to 60,000 units in year two..."

Year two is only four years from now. Your original claim was for 20 years you're moving the bar this low?

Yes, we won't have problems in 4 years. In 7 years, though, it's a diferent story for California, and within 2-3 years of that, many other states will follow.

"This week I got an iPhone. This weekend I got four chargers so I can keep it charged everywhere I go and a land line so I can actually make phone calls." -- Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg

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