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A picture of the new super strong paper. Its strength owes to its small fiber size.  (Source: American Chemical Society)
Up in the sky -- is it a bird? Is it a plane? No, it's super paper!

Some people can get a little sick of hearing about carbon nanotubes.  Sure, the little structures are strong, and bear a plethora of uses, but they're still expensive, so unfortunately their uses remain in the future.  However, a new, more affordable technology has been developed which revolutionizes an everyday material and will increase its strength to surprising levels.

The new technology, developed by researchers at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, takes ordinary cellulose and puts it through special processing.  The end result is a paper, made out of normal wood pulp that has an incredible tensile strength of 1.6 times that of iron.  The paper sports 214 MPa of tensile strength, easily trumping iron (130 MPa) and heavy duty paper (103 MPa).  Tensile strength helps to measure how resistant a material is to ripping, and how much weight it can support.

The new paper is composed of nano-sized whiskers of cellulose.  Cellulose, the crystalline polymer of glucose, is what makes up cell walls and makes plants so rigid.  On a nanoscale, cellulose fibers beat steel and glass in strength, but paper is composed of larger cellulose strands that are prone to breakage under stress.  Typical commercial paper has a tensile strength of a mere 30 MPa, indicating its weakness.

To make super paper, researchers first had to make the cellulose fibers super small.  Head researcher Lars Berglund used enzymes and mechanical beating to tear the cellulose fibers to a mere 1,000 of their original size.  Then the researchers added carboxymethanol, which coated the fibers in carbonyl groups.  These groups produced hydrogen bonds, further strengthening the material.

The research was published in the current issue of Biomacromolecules.

Mike Wolcott, a materials scientist and cellulose fiber expert at Washington State University in Pullman, labels the paper as "quite interesting".  He notes that the paper has large pores between fibers.  These pores make it dry quicker, saving in production costs and making manufacturing easier.  John Simonsen, a physical chemist and nanocrystalline cellulose expert at Oregon State University in Corvallis, adds that the new material is formed from the most abundant organic material on the planet, so even with the extra treatment it should be cost competitive against more exotic materials like carbon nanotubes.

The new paper may be even used in medical uses such as providing scaffolds for growing replacement tissues or organs.  However its most practical application may be as simple as the shopping bag.

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tensile strength...
By otispunkmeyer on 6/12/2008 6:49:45 AM , Rating: 2
its not really a test of a materials resistance to ripping

thats more crack propagation once the surface has been initially damaged

tensile strength is just a measure of the force required to make the material yield. the test is typically done simply by pulling opposite ends of the material in opposite directions with a hydraulic jack. and by yield i dont mean break. the yield point is the point where the material becomes plastically deformed. i.e. it will not return to its original state if you remove the load. after this point the tensile strength usually reduces before the the material utimately breaks apart.

paper is strong stuff if you use it correctly. i think in 1st year at uni we were able to hold over 15 house bricks with structures made of a limited supply of just 80gsm inkjet paper.

RE: tensile strength...
By Keeir on 6/12/2008 2:48:29 PM , Rating: 2
tensile strength is just a measure of the force required to make the material yield.

There are typically two measurements for tensile strength. Ultimate and Yield. Usually people are more concerned with the Ultimate Tensile Strength. I guess I would assume this would be Ultimate Tensile Strength. For ductile materials, there are actually three measurements, Yield, Ultimate and Fracture.

after this point the tensile strength usually reduces before the the material utimately breaks apart.

Depends on the measurement method. The total amount of load that a particular peice of material can support may decrease, but the amount of stress required will still increase. Here's a good page explaining true stress and strain with what appears to be a low carbon steel type material curve.

RE: tensile strength...
By fragatero on 6/12/2008 7:57:51 PM , Rating: 2
I readed somewhere, that the longer cellulose molecules are, the stronger the fiber formed by them is. Here is just the opposite, this molecule is shorter than standard cellulose molecule, so that maybe althoug molecule is stronger, fiber is not (I guess, is not an affirmation).

But maybe this stuff would be good as the core of a composite material mixed with a chemical glue.

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