Particle physics is one of the most intriguing scientific fields, probing the nature of the very makeup of the universe itself. However, over the last half decade, due to the growing economic crisis and various items such as war funding taking precedence in government budgets, the budget to help the U.S. stay leaders in the field of particle physics has been slipping.
The U.S. currently is down to only one remaining particle physics lab, the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Batavia, Illinois, associated with the University of Chicago and the lab was looking to be on the way out. It had started in February rolling furlough program that slashed already scarce employee pay by 12.5 percent and forced them to take periodic unpaid leave.
Now an anonymous donor has stepped in and donated $5M USD to the University of Chicago to try to alleviate these cuts and keep the lab open. Even with the extremely generous donation the lab is still in trouble. It plans to lay off 140 employees now, though it would have been an even larger number before the donation. The donation has allowed the lab to offer voluntary layoffs before the involuntary ones start.
Fermilab Director Piermaria Oddone spoke of the gift stating, "This is very unusual. It's not a building that carries a name. It's really a commitment to science and the nation and in particular to particle physics as a long-range important undertaking for our nation."
The good news has somewhat buoyed the sunken spirits of physicists at the lab. Says Consolato Gattuso, an engineering physicist at the lab, "This is definitely a weight that has been lifted. It gives us some light at the end of the tunnel."
Throughout the last five years, FermiLab's budget has been falling. The U.S. Congress's last minute budget for 2008 cut FermiLab funding from $372 million requested by the Department of Energy (DOE) to $320 million, $22 million less than the lab had received in 2007. The lab went into a state of crisis, forcing employees to take one week off unpaid every other month and work shorter hours. Further, 200 of the lab's 1950 employees were scheduled to be cut.
The U.S. is in a particle physics competition of sorts with Europe to find the legendary Higgs boson particle first. The cuts will allow Fermi's Tevatron Collider to stay operational, and continue the search. Researchers remain optimistic that Fermi may find the particle before Europe's CERN lab turns on its more powerful Large Hadron Collider this summer.
Legally, Fermilab cannot officially accept the gift, but it will allow the University of Chicago to contract employees to work in the lab. Over 50 employees have already left the lab, allowing it to scrape $1M USD in savings.
This is not the first time in recent years that the Congress has chronically underfunded the Department of Energy's physics research labs. In 2006, Congress gave the Brookhaven National Laboratory in Upton, New York so little money that it would have to shut down its Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. James Simons, a theoretical physicist and billionaire hedge-fund guru saved the Collider with a gift of $13M USD.
The officials at Fermi are extremely grateful for a gift, but fear it’s only prolonging the inevitable. Brendan Casey, a Fermilab particle physicist states, "The grain of salt is that it really does nothing to change the uncertainty with regard to the future. So there's some relief, but the underlying tension is still there."
The U.S. government may be forced to reevaluate its spending priorities as more experimental physics labs and other science programs go under and U.S. leadership in the sciences slips. This would truly be an unfortunate loss for the country, most would agree.
quote: The U.S. Congress's last minute budget for 2008 cut FermiLab funding from $372 million requested by the Department of Energy (DOE) to $320 million, $22 million less than the lab had received in 2007
quote: "Now, Imaging [sic] your boss give you some very low budget, and then specifically tells you that one project, which would costs a large amount of $$$, should be done ASAP. What would happen to other projects that you have in hand? This is exactly the problem NASA is facing.
quote: Under Bush, it went from $13.4B up to $17.2B (2008), nearly a 30% increase.
quote: I haven't looked up inflation numbers
quote: "the original budget plan passed by the congress proposed an amount larger than the number that President Bush expected, so he threated to veto it therefore the congress had to reduce the number which eventually leads to the funding cut in many field of fundamental science.
quote: Their mission is to attack Iraq's nuclear, chemical and biological weapons programs and its military capacity to threaten its neighbors," said Clinton.
quote: General Zinni: Obviously, I think you know we went after missile production and missile repair facilities. We went after surface-to-air missile sites. In terms of getting down to individual pieces of equipment, my being able to tell you how many APCs or tanks or FROG missiles or whatever, we don't have that yet. That's part of the sort of more granular assessment that we will have to do. We may never know exactly.Q: Certainly. But if UNSCOM has said that there's unaccounted inventories of missiles, artillery shells, bombs that they believe are filled with possibly chemical and biological material, did you hit any weapons depots or weapons sites where you believe there was chemical and biological material?General Zinni: None that we know of. But again, I think you point out the reason why it was important to keep UNSCOM in operation and with full access. The only way we know is through UNSCOM.
quote: Current eventsLess than a month after the movie was released, President Bill Clinton was embroiled in a sex scandal arising from his relationship with Monica Lewinsky. Over the course of 1998 and early 1999, as the scandal dominated American politics, the US engaged in three military operations: * Operation Desert Fox, a three-day bombing campaign in Iraq that took place as the U.S. House of Representatives debated articles of impeachment against Clinton * Operation Infinite Reach, a pair of missile strikes against suspected terrorist targets in Sudan and Afghanistan three days after Clinton admitted in a nationally televised address that he had an inappropriate relationship with Lewinsky * Operation Allied Force, a 78-day-long NATO bombing campaign against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia that began weeks after Clinton was acquitted in his Senate impeachment trial.In a further coincidence, the missile strikes against Sudan and Afghanistan were announced by the White House moments before the beginning of a press conference in which Lewinsky was to give details of her appearance before Congress.
quote: The republicans in the congress have been anything but, giving the president everything he wants and looking the other way on anything questionable he does.
quote: the federal R&D investment exceeded 1 percent of U.S. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) until recently, buoyed by big increases in weapons development, but is now declining sharply. Federal investments in development, mostly in DOD, have held steady as a share of the economy, but the federal research/GDP ratio is in free fall down to a projected 0.38 percent in 2009, below the long-term historical average of 0.4 percent after gains in the late 1990s.
quote: (but give the devil his due, he did get us a balanced budget as a result).
quote: 1993 -- the year of the giant Clinton tax hike -- was not the turning point in the deficit wars, either. In fact, in 1995, two years after that tax hike, the budget baseline submitted by the president's own Office of Management and Budget and the nonpartisan Congressional Budget Office predicted $200 billion deficits for as far as the eye could see. The figure shows the Clinton deficit baseline. What changed this bleak outlook?Newt Gingrich and company -- for all their faults -- have received virtually no credit for balancing the budget. Yet today's surplus is, in part, a byproduct of the GOP's single-minded crusade to end 30 years of red ink. Arguably, Gingrich's finest hour as Speaker came in March 1995 when he rallied the entire Republican House caucus behind the idea of eliminating the deficit within seven years.
quote: During Bush's first term in office, R&D funding increased some 30%. It has remained flat his second term in office, but still substantially above the level Clinton left it at.
quote: Cost for the Iraq war have averaged some $200B per year, a tiny fraction of the $2.7 trillion we spend annually, by far most of it on Social Security, Medicaire/Medicaid, and other wealth-redistribution programs.
quote: Ah, the logical fallacy of the anecdotal example makes its appearance.
quote: By the way, when I was in graduate school nearly 20 years ago, everyone all had the same complaints
quote: I'm not quite sure was "universal per-school" education is, nor why a 3 year old would need it...but it sounds quite socialistic.
quote: "I'm transgender. You probably have no idea what I'm talking about. I guess I'm going to have to explain it to everyone in the school," Caleb, 17, recounted. "I'm going to use the men's bathroom this year, so we need to figure something out."
quote: A transgender child in Florida, genetically a boy, will be admitted to kindergarten this fall as a girl