Purdue Develops Alloy For Commercially Viable Hydrogen Production
February 21, 2008 1:43 PM
Jerry Woodall, a professor at Purdue University invented the new alloy production process, promising affordable, easy hydrogen.
(Source: Purdue University)
Pictures of the alloy in water, reacting to produce hydrogen, as evidenced by bubbling.
(Source: Purdue University)
The byproduct of the process is a recyclable mix of aluminum and gallium-indium-tin ores.
(Source: Purdue University)
Here a Purdue researcher uses the hydrogen produced by the process to power an internal combustion engine.
(Source: Purdue University)
While some hydrogen research focuses on simulating nature, a new metal reagent developed by Purdue University promises economic viability
Jerry Woodall, a distinguished professor of electrical and computer engineering at Purdue University, is firmly ground in the world of commercial production. When he began researching ways to improve hydrogen production using aluminum reagents, his goal was simple -- if it wasn't commercially viable, it wasn't a success.
While recent researchers have reported significant breakthroughs in fields such as
microbial hydrogen production
, these methods currently are too inefficient to currently be
feasible as a non-subsidized fuel alternative
. While these methods are exciting in that they may one day lead to cleaner and more effective energy production, many agree that
the time for hydrogen is now
, and waiting for theoretical methods is simply impractical.
Fortunately Purdue's Woodall
developed a more down to Earth method of hydrogen production
that promises a feasible infrastructure and short term commercial viability. Woodall states, "We now have an economically viable process for producing hydrogen on-demand for vehicles, electrical generating stations and other applications."
The key to the method is a new aluminum reagent, which Woodall invented. The new reagent is composed of 95 percent aluminum and then a critical 5 percent mixture of gallium, indium and tin to improve its reactive character. Previous similar alloys used far more gallium, which is very expensive. By cutting down the gallium, Woodall greatly reduced the costs of hydrogen production.
When the new alloy is exposed to water, it reacts to create hydrogen gas and oxygen. The oxygen then bonds to the aluminum to form aluminum oxide, also known as alumina. It is cheaper to recycle alumina back to aluminum than it is to refine aluminum from bauxite ore, which is another element contributing to its efficiency. Woodall illuminates, "After recycling both the aluminum oxide back to aluminum and the inert gallium-indium-tin alloy only 60 times, the cost of producing energy both as hydrogen and heat using the technology would be reduced to 10 cents per kilowatt hour, making it competitive with other energy technologies."
Control of the microscopic structure of the solid aluminum and the gallium-indium-tin alloy mixture is critical to the technology's success. The mixture is a "two-phase" mixture, meaning that it features abrupt changes in composition between one constituent to another. Woodall explains this challenge stating, "This is because the mixture tends to resist forming entirely as a homogeneous solid due to the different crystal structures of the elements in the alloy and the low melting point of the gallium-indium-tin alloy. I can form a one-phase melt of liquid aluminum and the gallium-indium-tin alloy by heating it. But when I cool it down, most of the gallium-indium-tin alloy is not homogeneously incorporated into the solid aluminum, but remains a separate phase of liquid. The constituents separate into two phases just like ice and liquid water."
Researchers had two options -- fast cooling to leave separate alloys or slow cooling to yield a single solid alloy brick. At first they tried fast cooling, which required a puddle of gallium-indium-tin to initiate the reaction. However, when they turned to the slow-cooled alloy, they were impressed to discover that it reacted just as well, or better, eliminating the need for the liquid gallium-indium-tin alloy. Woodall adds, "That was a fantastic discovery. What used to be a curiosity is now a real alternative energy technology."
The Purdue team is currently completing work on developing a production method to produce briquettes of the alloy. These briquettes could be dropped into a tank of water, producing pure hydrogen. This would eliminate both the need for hydrogen storage and hydrogen transportation, two critical obstacles for the hydrogen industry.
The gallium-indium-tin alloy in the process is inert and is able to be recovered with almost 100 percent efficiency. Woodall says even the less efficient aluminum recycling produces much less carbon emissions than traditional fuel. He states, "The aluminum oxide is recycled back into aluminum using the currently preferred industrial process called the Hall-Héroult process, which produces one-third as much carbon dioxide as combusting gasoline in an engine."
In order to fully realize the technology on a national scale for fuel use, alumina recycling infrastructure would need to be dramatically expanded. Additionally, gallium-indium-tin recycling would need to be added. This infrastructure would be expensive, but according to Woodall "the economic risk is large, but the potential payoff is also large."
Woodall won the 2001 National Medal of Technology, the highest award for technological achievement in the U.S. Woodall his fellow researchers will present their findings on Feb. 26, 2008 at the Materials Innovations in an Emerging Hydrogen Economy conference in Cocoa Beach, Fla. The alloy production process's primary patent title is owned by the Purdue Research Foundation. Purdue has licensed the technology to an Indiana startup company, AlGalCo LLC., which Purdue hopes will be the first company to implement the technology commercially.
Purdue's solution is similar to the University of Leeds'
new method of producing hydrogen from biofuel waste sludge
, in that both solutions are economically feasible, but require the development of production infrastructures. However the new method from Purdue can make hydrogen from a far more plentiful source -- pure water.
"We can't expect users to use common sense. That would eliminate the need for all sorts of legislation, committees, oversight and lawyers." -- Christopher Jennings
Solar Cell Makes Hydrogen Via Synthetic Photosynthesis
February 19, 2008, 12:13 AM
Cellulosic Ethanol Promises $1 per Gallon Fuel From Waste
January 14, 2008, 11:01 AM
CES 2008 Ride and Drive with GM's Fuel Cell Equinox and DARPA Tahoe
January 11, 2008, 1:50 PM
New Process Turns Biofuel Waste Into Clean Hydrogen
December 1, 2007, 1:35 AM
Microbial Hydrogen Production Threatens Extinction for the Ethanol Dinosaur
November 15, 2007, 9:51 AM
PIQ ROBOTTM reveals its new artificial intelligence software
November 29, 2016, 12:59 AM
One more time - Happy Thanksgiving to Everyone Around the World
November 24, 2016, 4:00 AM
Google’s Smart Contact Lens Project gets halted for 2016
November 20, 2016, 7:00 AM
Cell Research Study shows African Americans have greater immune response to infection
November 10, 2016, 1:00 AM
UTHealth Clinical Trial Shows Progress Using Stem Cells to Treat Traumatic Brain Injury
November 8, 2016, 1:00 AM
Uber Partners with Circulation to Pilot Program Connecting Transportation and Digital Health Care
November 6, 2016, 5:00 AM
Most Popular Articles
OnePlus 3T – 5.5” Optic AMOLED and Dash Charging Technology
March 23, 2017, 8:45 AM
Gigabyte GA-Z170X-Gaming G1 – Intel Thunderbolt 3 Certified Motherboard
March 9, 2017, 6:25 AM
Huawei P8 Lite 2017 – Android 7 Nougat Smartphone with Octa-Core Processor
March 8, 2017, 7:03 AM
Lenovo ThinkPad T460 - Ultra-Thin and Feather-light
March 3, 2017, 6:00 AM
Nokia has ditched this camera technology in its new smartphones
March 7, 2017, 8:45 AM
Latest Blog Posts
Android Creator and New Bezel-less Smartphone
Mar 29, 2017, 10:28 AM
More Apps From Google
Mar 28, 2017, 7:15 AM
Are you thinking of performance and speed? Intel claims:
Mar 25, 2017, 7:45 AM
Apple buys an automation app called Workflow. The deal was completed today and brings the app along with its developers.
Mar 23, 2017, 7:35 AM
Apple Announces new color for iPhones and iPads
Mar 22, 2017, 7:45 AM
Instagram: You Can Now Save Live Videos For Later
Mar 21, 2017, 7:49 AM
Samsung Galaxy S8 to Get New Color Scheme
Mar 20, 2017, 7:45 AM
What else to worry about?
Mar 17, 2017, 6:45 AM
Icon of the Day: Intel/ NVIDIA or Mobileye
Mar 16, 2017, 6:15 AM
JUST IN - Twitter Hijacked : High-Profile Account Accesses
Mar 15, 2017, 7:07 AM
Mar 14, 2017, 7:30 AM
News and Tips
Mar 13, 2017, 6:30 AM
iPhone 8 – May Not Get Curved Screen
Mar 11, 2017, 8:00 AM
California paves way to self-driving car tests without humans
Mar 11, 2017, 7:18 AM
Smart Machines V hackers
Mar 10, 2017, 7:00 AM
Uber Can Resume Autonomous Car Testing in California
Mar 9, 2017, 6:50 AM
Mar 8, 2017, 7:09 AM
Mar 7, 2017, 8:45 AM
World news 3-6
Mar 6, 2017, 5:40 AM
Mar 4, 2017, 7:40 AM
Mixed News of the Day
Mar 4, 2017, 6:32 AM
Jaguar Land Rover invests in ride-sharing
Mar 3, 2017, 7:00 AM
More Blog Posts
Copyright 2017 DailyTech LLC. -
Terms, Conditions & Privacy Information