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Electrode being inserted into the brain

The hypothalamus; the target site for the procedure
A "pacemaker" for the human brain might be on the horizon

A 50 year old man, dangerously obese, goes to the hospital for experimental brain surgery to suppress his appetite.  A small piece of his skull is removed, and an electrical probe inserted deep into his brain tissue. It reaches his hypothalamus and current is switched on. Suddenly the patient -- awake through the procedure -- begins to speak uncontrollably about events in his past, events he had long forgotten. He remembers a day's walk in the park 30 years ago, complete with what people were wearing, all in vivid color.  He sees them speaking to him, every motion they made. The intensity and level of detail of the memories is frightening.

The scene may read like the script of a bad science fiction flick but it comes from an unidentified patient at Ontario's Toronto Western Hospital.  No one was more astonished than the man's doctors, who began to experiment further on him.  Over the next few weeks, they continued testing. His ability to both learn and remember was substantially increased when the electrodes were turned on. Continuous stimulation also had a residual effect -- after the electrodes were off, there was still a slight benefit.

Professor Andreas Lozano, of the Neurosurgery Department of Toronto Western, led the research. He says the electrodes function like "turning up the volume" on the brain's memory circuits. "As we turned the current up, we first drove his memory circuits and improved his learning. As we increased the intensity, we got spontaneous memories of discrete events. At a certain intensity, he would slash to the [park scene]. When the intensity was increased further, he got more detail but, when the current was turned off, it rapidly decayed."

Lozano's previous research included stimulating certain portions of the brain to curb appetite. His research in that field earned him more than a few headlines in 2006.

The results were so successful the same technique is now being trialed on six Alzheimer's patients. Functioning like a "pacemaker for the brain," the treatment offers hope for the millions worldwide who suffer from the debilitating memory and cognitive losses caused by Alzheimer's. 

The electrodes are connected by a cable that runs under the patient's skin, down the back of the neck to a battery pack implanted in the patient's chest. A constant low-level current stimulates the brain tissue, but is otherwise imperceptible to the patient.

The devices are the same as those already being used successfully as a treatment for Parkinson's disease, severe depression, and even chronic pain; all that varies is the exact segment of the brain where implantation occurs. In Parkinson's, for instance, the subthalamic nucleus is stimulated. Depression targets a small area of the cingulate cortex.

"This gives us new insight into which brain structures are involved in memory", says Professor Lozano.

More news of Lozano's research is expected to be announced later today to Canadian media.

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RE: Borg
By masher2 on 1/30/2008 10:40:15 AM , Rating: 5
Actually, I think longterm the reverse will occur. Metal hardware is a stopgap approach until we have the technology to build organic components, basically indistinguishable from the human body itself.

Why implant sensors for an eye, for instance, when we have the ability to build a better eyeball itself? Especially when the organic model can grow itself and do much of its own self-repair.

RE: Borg
By DASQ on 1/30/2008 10:46:17 AM , Rating: 2
Sign me up for cyberbrain implantation.

RE: Borg
By Master Kenobi on 1/30/2008 11:10:34 AM , Rating: 2
True enough. We will grow superior body parts to replace existing ones... Manmade evolution at it's finest. Perhaps simply modify the genetics in babies so they are born with many enhancements.

RE: Borg
By NicePants42 on 1/30/2008 1:55:52 PM , Rating: 1
There is no gene for the human spirit.

RE: Borg
By JasonMick on 1/30/2008 2:29:52 PM , Rating: 5
Sure there is, its right on Chromosome 14 Locus 45 next to diabetes and eye color ;)

RE: Borg
By eye smite on 1/30/08, Rating: 0
RE: Borg
By NullSubroutine on 1/30/2008 11:45:51 PM , Rating: 4
It is a movie based on a myth, not fact.

RE: Borg
By NicePants42 on 1/31/2008 10:33:21 AM , Rating: 2
It's nice to see that someone here can recognize a movie reference. -_-

RE: Borg
By dluther on 2/2/2008 11:06:21 PM , Rating: 2
the human body losing exactly 21 grams at the time of death

Actually, it's not exactly -- it's the average of the weight of fecal matter expelled when the sphincter and other bowel muscles completely relax after expiration.

Just another little tidbit of knowledge God forgot to mention to Adam.

RE: Borg
By Schadenfroh on 1/30/2008 6:06:51 PM , Rating: 3
Cybermen will remove fear. Cybermen will remove sex, and class, and colour, and creed.

Cybermen will remove the concept of spirit.

Cybermen will give you the reflexes of a counter-strike bot.

RE: Borg
By bdewong on 1/31/2008 12:31:48 PM , Rating: 2
After reading this, I can't stop imagining people running around, trying to go up a ladder but just glitching out at the bottom and making so no one can get up.

RE: Borg
By Polynikes on 2/6/2008 1:42:52 PM , Rating: 2
They'll also be running around tossing grenades at their friends' feet.

RE: Borg
By Zoomer on 1/31/2008 11:05:13 PM , Rating: 2
>>Cybermen will remove sex

Are you serious????

RE: Borg
By HrilL on 2/1/2008 2:24:46 AM , Rating: 2
Well maybe for reproduction, but we'll always do it for fun.

RE: Borg
By tastyratz on 2/1/2008 11:15:52 PM , Rating: 2
The only thing removing sex is the obsession with star trek with half the posts on this article. This is a great advance in technology. Now that we have covered it for the love of god get laid people

RE: Borg
By SilthDraeth on 2/1/2008 2:41:01 PM , Rating: 2
Is that a Dr. Who reference?

RE: Borg
By fictisiousname on 1/31/2008 9:07:50 AM , Rating: 2
As someone who has lost part of the Mk 1 Mod 0 human body and has to deal with what is currently "the best we have"...shall we say I have a unique perspective of just how far away this dream is today?

Someday, perhaps, Science will be able to grow the necessary cells. Even more of a challenge is getting those cells to communicate with the required nerves and be recognized by the body as part of the "Collective". Probably not in our lifetime, but march on nevertheless.

RE: Borg
By PandaBear on 1/31/08, Rating: -1
RE: Borg
By dluther on 2/2/2008 11:07:52 PM , Rating: 1
All natural boob job for all.

Instant boob job: just add milk.

RE: Borg
By SlyNine on 2/10/2008 12:28:11 AM , Rating: 2
So we went from turning in to the Borg to turning in to the Asgard.

"I'm an Internet expert too. It's all right to wire the industrial zone only, but there are many problems if other regions of the North are wired." -- North Korean Supreme Commander Kim Jong-il

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