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Building a cheaper, cleaner lithium batter?

Part of the reason that lithium-ion batteries are so popular in everything from cellular phones to automobiles is their relatively quick charge times, reasonable capacity, and resistance to fatigue. Unfortunately, Li-ion batteries are still somewhat expensive as their manufacturing process requires a good amount of energy and some of their usual metal companions, such as cobalt and nickel, are not entirely inexpensive.

Researchers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with help from the U.S. Department of Energy are working on developing Li-ion batteries which can perform at similar levels, but cost much less to produce. The cost reduction will come from a change in both production methods and materials used.

Rather than the typical lithium metal oxide construction, the PNNL team looked to materials to replace the oxide and expensive cobalt or nickel with a phosphate and manganese or iron. Lithium metal phosphate batteries are not unheard of, but the PNNL team wanted something without such complicated production methods and high costs.

Materials scientist at PNNL, Daiwon Choi speaks of the team's technique in a PNNL news release, "This method is a lot simpler than other ways of making lithium manganese phosphate cathodes. Other groups have a complicated, multi-step process. We mix all the components and heat it up."

The simpler process he spoke of involves nothing much more than paraffin wax and oleic acid (soap), and heat. They began by mixing the lithium, phosphate, and manganese together with melted wax and oleic acid. Paraffin wax is made of long and mostly inert molecule chains which helped direct the crystal growth, while the oleic acid, as a surfactant, helped spread the important constituents evenly.

Next they raised the temperature of the mixture. By 400 degrees Celsius, the wax and soap had evaporated away from the mixture, leaving tiny lithium manganese phosphate (LMP) crystals of approximately 50 by 2000 by 2000 nanometers. For comparison, a human hair is about 50,000 to 60,000 nanometers in diameter. They further raised the temperature to bond the crystals together and form a plate of cathode material.

In theory, LMP should be rather competitive with typical Li-ion metal oxide batteries, with a capacitance of about 170 milliAmp hours in one gram of material. In past tests, researchers had been able to get up to 120 milliAmp hours with lithium metal phosphate-based batteries. Choi and colleagues where able to get 168 milliAmp hours per gram of material in their best case charge/discharge tests. But the number dipped as low as 54 milliAmp hours during a fast/fast "real world" test cycle.

These numbers are far from disappointing for PNNL. The team was able to engineer a way to create LMP crystals with simplicity and without high cost. The work may pave the way for other alternative lithium-based composite batteries. They also plan further work in refinement of the carbon backing used as the positive electrode for the LMP crystal plates.



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Just one simple request.
By theplaidfad on 8/13/2010 1:33:02 PM , Rating: 3
Make it smell like Irish Spring™. Would be great to have our electronics smell like something other than burning plastic when they heat up.




RE: Just one simple request.
By FITCamaro on 8/13/2010 1:52:04 PM , Rating: 5
No because next thing you know, they're going to be making Axe Body Spray versions of laptop.


RE: Just one simple request.
By FITCamaro on 8/13/2010 1:52:19 PM , Rating: 2
laptops*


RE: Just one simple request.
By Proxes on 8/13/2010 2:44:27 PM , Rating: 2
What are you talking about? That's the new electronics smell! I swear they coat the wires with drugs to keep us buying more.


RE: Just one simple request.
By Smartless on 8/13/2010 3:24:50 PM , Rating: 3
Heeeey wait a second, the white paint on this Mac Book looks more like cocaine, and this wiring smells so niiiiice.


RE: Just one simple request.
By vanionBB on 8/13/2010 3:42:53 PM , Rating: 4
"Swan Dive"


RE: Just one simple request.
By quiksilvr on 8/13/2010 4:16:48 PM , Rating: 5
Smell your laptop, now smell me, now smell your laptop, now smell me.

Your laptop is now crack!


RE: Just one simple request.
By ira176 on 8/15/2010 11:32:07 PM , Rating: 3
Yea,I wouldn't mind the sent of Irish Spring, but from the sounds of the ingredients (surfactants), they're shooting for something more like a bar of LAVA, and that just isn't right when were talking batteries.


Oops
By rcc on 8/13/2010 2:44:54 PM , Rating: 5
quote:
with a capacitance of about 170 milliAmp hours in one gram of material


I presume you were looking for capacity here, as capacitance is measured in Farads, not Amp Hours.




RE: Oops
By ThisSpaceForRent on 8/13/2010 10:29:26 PM , Rating: 2
Maybe it was measured with a Cardinal Graham meter?

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GVVKEsPeLtI


RE: Oops
By Jedi2155 on 8/14/2010 2:36:29 AM , Rating: 2
I wonder if they meant Watt hours per kilogram, although milli/gram would scale very nicely to kilo...


RE: Oops
By DrizztVD on 8/17/2010 6:41:53 AM , Rating: 2
quote:
with a capacitance of about 170 milliAmp hours in one gram of material
quote:
I presume you were looking for capacity here...
No, that is completely accurate. Capacitance of a capacitor is measured in Farads which is: coulomb/volt. i.e: A 1 Farad cap stores 2 Coulomb at 2 Volt. That makes no sense for a battery

Instead, They use Amp hours= 1Amp x1hr. Which gives = 1Coulomb/1Sec x 3600Seconds = 3600 Coulombs - a perfect indication of stored charge.


RE: Oops
By Chernobyl68 on 8/19/2010 1:29:12 PM , Rating: 2
almost. An Amp-hr is equivalent to Farad-volt, not farad. So amp hours is a capacity, not a capacitance.


sounds tasty
By tastyratz on 8/13/2010 1:42:36 PM , Rating: 3
quote:
Building a cheaper, cleaner lithium batter?


mmmm. I used to lick the batter off the spoon when mom made cookies. I bet I don't want to eat this batter though...

Unless of course you meant battery in the title. come on guys... right at the top?




RE: sounds tasty
By bigdawg1988 on 8/13/2010 4:49:25 PM , Rating: 2
Well, considering what most people use their computers for off-hours, batter may be appropriate. And you REALLY don't want to eat any of that batter! lol


RE: sounds tasty
By gmyx on 8/18/2010 8:21:18 AM , Rating: 2
After reading the article, it makes sense since it talks about the recipe and not the entire battery. They mix a bunch of stuff up and heat it. Sounds like a batter to me.


Building a cheaper, cleaner lithium batter?
By zozzlhandler on 8/13/2010 4:30:49 PM , Rating: 2
We need a copy editor, bad.

Would we dip the batteries in the batter and fry them?




By MindParadox on 8/13/2010 8:09:18 PM , Rating: 2
well, it depends, Jobs was gonna announce iFries later this year, but looks like the cat is outta the bag now! :)

(i just couldnt help myself)

Apostrophes Cause Catastrophes!


By Shadowself on 8/14/2010 12:40:23 PM , Rating: 3
Just to be "nit picky"...

We need a copy editor, badly .


Creative!
By ppardee on 8/13/2010 1:36:05 PM , Rating: 2
Since the acid and wax evaporate, I wonder if it is possible to reclaim them afterward. Even if the battery created with this technology has fewer mAH/g, if it is cheaper, it could still be very popular in devices where size and weight are not critical. It will be interesting to see where this goes.




RE: Creative!
By docawolff on 8/13/2010 4:15:38 PM , Rating: 2
Yup! Both materials are routinely purified by distillation. Recycling efficiency should be quite high unless the metals oxidize the oleic acid. I don't know enough about the technology (oxidation states of the metals) to know if that is likely.


Oleic Acid is NOT soap
By AaronMsomebody on 8/16/2010 8:56:30 PM , Rating: 2
Either they are mean to say saponified oleic acid (which WOULD be soap) or they are misquoting the original source. To quote wikipedia: "Oleic acid is a mono-unsaturated omega-9 fatty acid found in various animal and vegetable sources."
Soap is a saponified fatty acid.




RE: Oleic Acid is NOT soap
By ThePooBurner on 8/20/2010 1:07:30 PM , Rating: 2
Fatty acids from animals. Is there anything bacon can't do for us? Mmmm, bacon scented Electronics...


Wax
By Donkeyshins on 8/16/2010 1:26:30 PM , Rating: 2
Wax and electronics are no strangers. Wax has been used as a dielectric in capacitors and as a dielectric and potting material in transformers for many years.




Cheaper?
By AskTheChief on 8/17/2010 12:46:16 PM , Rating: 2
I can see how some aspects can be cheaper, but "Next they raised the temperature of the mixture. By 400 degrees Celsius" has got to be an added expense that current batteries do not use.




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