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  (Source: Inazuma)
Linux operating system is expected to improve security, stability

Microsoft Corp.'s (MSFT) Windows XP is among the company's most beloved products. Generally lauded for its stability, compatibility, and security since Service Pack 3 rolled out, the aging operating system has still been hanging around in many enterprise deployments -- including the International Space Station (ISS).  But the ISS and others have found out the hard way of late that slower patching and a phase-out of support have left the once unbeatable OS a major security risk.

I. Phasing Out XP, Moving to the Penguin

Keith Chuvala of United Space Alliance, a contractor who handles much of the ISS operations, decided enough is enough after a 2008 security breach; he's switching the "dozens of laptops" aboard the ISS to Debian 6, a Linux operating system.

Linux has been used on the ISS systems since its 1998 launch (see this 2001 article [PDF] in Linux Magazine, for example) and in NASA ground system since its inception. However, most laptops used aboard the station for day-to-day activities like viewing stock inventory, controlling scientific experiments, or checking the current station location -- a cluster dubbed "OpsLAN" -- ran Windows.

But NASA received a wakeup call in 2008 when a Russian cosmonaut inadvertently brought a W32.Gammima.AG worm aboard his Windows laptop, which infected the other laptops onboard, requiring painstaking cleanup.  While Linux machines are not immune to worms and other malware, their small market share and quick patching (thanks to the open source community) have made Linux distributions more secure than their Windows counterparts from a practical perspective.

ISS Crew LaptopAn ISS crew member mans one of the station's laptops. [Image Source: NASA]

Mr. Chuvala comments, "We migrated key functions from Windows to Linux because we needed an operating system that was stable and reliable – one that would give us in-house control. So if we needed to patch, adjust or adapt, we could."

He's getting help for the project from the Linux Foundation, a non-profit consortium founded in 2007 by the merger of two key Linux evangelist groups.  The Linux Foundation -- whose mission is to promote the U.S. of Linux worldwide -- is training engineers at space agencies and potential astronauts on the new operating system and how to develop for it.

Dominic Duval, the Director of Enterprise Training, spearheaded the training effort, pairing engineers at The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and other partner space agencies with qualified Linux professionals skilled in teaching OS basics.  He designed two courses for the trainees -- Introduction to Linux for Developers and Developing Applications For Linux.

II. Debian is the Distribution Du Jour

The ISS's systems run mostly Scientific Linux -- a distribution developed by Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) -- and RedHat Enterprise Linux, developed by Red Hat, Inc. (RHT).  But the Linux Foundation steered Mr. Chuvula and NASA towards yet another distribution for the day-to-day machines -- Debian.

The agency decided on adopting (for now) Debian 6, a version released in Feb. 2011.  Debian 7 was just released days ago, and will likely eventually be rolled out as well.  Debian is licensed under the GNU General Public License (GPL), a permissive open-source license.

ISS Debian
The ISS laptops will run Debian 6, a popular Linux distribution.

Debian relies on donations to develop, improve, and fix flaws in its codebase of over 320 million lines of code.  The project boasts over 3,000 volunteers.  The cost of Debian 5, had it been developed for-profit by salaried employees, is estimated [PDF] in a recent academic analysis to have been $8B USD.

In terms of reception, Debian is often listed as second to only Ubuntu in popularity.  While it's difficult to estimate the exact number of Debian users, security listings in the operating system show at least 1.9 million (active) unique IPs.

II. Robonaut 2 Gets an Upgrade; Scientist Deal With a Spill

In related news Robonaut 2 -- a Linux-powered semi-autonomous humanoid robot aboard the ISS -- will soon get an upgrade, expanding its usefulness.  Currently just a torso, head, and arms (with articulated "fingers"); the robot will receive legs and an expanded battery pack later this year.

The control software for the robot is Ubuntu, developed by Canonical.  It's unclear what distribution the robot itself runs, but it runs a variety of embedded Linux.  Launched in 2011 in the final mission of the Space Shuttle Discovery, the robot will soon be able to assist astronauts aboard the ISS with menial tasks (vacuuming, changing filters), as well as dangerous space-walk repairs.

The ISS is also grappling a leaking in its ammonia-based cooling system.  While the leak poses "no danger" in an immediate sense to crew, the leak threatens to shut down one of the solar panels powering the station's electronics.

ISS wing
One of the ISS's eight 230-foot dual-wings has a leaking cooling system and is being shut down. [Image Source: NASA]

As the solar arrays have independent cooling loops, the crew is phasing out the faulty loop and rerouting the other loops to stand in for its power source.  The same array underwent troubleshooting in a Nov. 2012 spacewalk.  It's unclear if that attempt failed to fully fix the leak, or if a new leak occurred.

The ISS's solar array is the largest [PDF] photovoltaic (PV) array ever deployed in space.  Its advanced cells must be kept under 130 degrees Celsius, a daunting challenge given that the eight wings (consisting of 33,000 cells each) stretch over approximately an acre of space and produce between 75 and 90 kilowatts on an average day in space.  That many kilowatts makes for a lot of waste heat, given that the even these extremely efficient cells are only around 25 percent efficient.

Sources: The Linux Foundation, NASA

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Brought his own laptop?
By half_duplex on 5/10/2013 1:43:28 PM , Rating: 5
The cosmonaut was sophisticated enough to get his PC infected, yet they think he's ready to switch to Debian???

He'd be better off with a TI-98.

NASA fails again.

RE: Brought his own laptop?
By freedom4556 on 5/10/2013 1:51:14 PM , Rating: 2
I was just wondering how you get a virus in space .

RE: Brought his own laptop?
By cruisin3style on 5/10/2013 2:18:41 PM , Rating: 5
In space, no one can hear your blue screen of death

RE: Brought his own laptop?
By mjv.theory on 5/10/2013 2:11:08 PM , Rating: 3
Come on now, only idiots and iSheep run proprietary software - which Linux distro do you run?. Excellent decision by NASA to go Open Source.

RE: Brought his own laptop?
By Labotomizer on 5/10/2013 3:18:05 PM , Rating: 2
Seems a no brainer for an application like this. These are the kinds of projects Linux excels at. Very specialized applications are very good for Linux. You get the best performance because of the specialized requirements.

RE: Brought his own laptop?
By half_duplex on 5/10/2013 4:10:41 PM , Rating: 2
It's not a terrible decision, but we're talking about on board laptops , not DB servers or boxes to stand up Tomcat on.

If the users are finding ways to infect their PC, I doubt they know how to use bash.

RE: Brought his own laptop?
By half_duplex on 5/10/2013 4:13:47 PM , Rating: 4
Don't get me wrong, I like Ubuntu, I put it on both my parents laptops afters years of Windows frustration. They haven't had a SINGLE problem yet... and their HP printer will use an ENTIRE ink cartridge now!

But don't bash OSX, this is best *nix "distro" ever.

RE: Brought his own laptop?
By Reclaimer77 on 5/10/2013 7:40:18 PM , Rating: 1
They haven't had a SINGLE problem yet...

Probably because they call on you to do anything significant. Please sit here and lie to me and tell me your parents know how to navigate the command line interface, or compile on Linux, or pretty much do anything besides surf and eMail.

RE: Brought his own laptop?
By V-Money on 5/11/2013 1:18:08 PM , Rating: 2
Please sit here and lie to me and tell me your parents know how to navigate the command line interface, or compile on Linux, or pretty much do anything besides surf and eMail.

What else do you expect them to do on it really? I mean I love computers and have used many different operating systems, but besides playing with them for the sake of playing with them all I really do is surf the web, play games, listen to music, and use Office/Photoshop. All of those can be done easily (except the gaming, although steam is starting to come together for Linux) so why would they need to do anything else.

RE: Brought his own laptop?
By Reclaimer77 on 5/12/2013 1:18:57 AM , Rating: 2
My point was despite it's improvements on the UI end, Linux at times still makes tasks that are moderate to easy on Windows, a major difficulty.

So sure, you can set up a system with Linux for whoever you want. But as soon as they want to do something for themselves, they'll probably hit a roadblock and come calling to you for tech support every time.

Pretending Linux is ready for prime-time on the desktop is all the rage I know, but I've been there. I know how setting up Linux for parents or grandparents works in the real world. Endless headaches for you and me.

RE: Brought his own laptop?
By wallijonn on 5/13/2013 11:15:12 AM , Rating: 2
... Linux ... as soon as they want to do something for themselves, they'll probably hit a roadblock and come calling to you for tech support every time. ... I know how setting up Linux for parents or grandparents works in the real world. Endless headaches for you and me.

One big reason why Linux doesn't make it in the "real world" is because most users want free software or pirated software. They will still download an .EXE file and then ask why it's not installing. It doesn't matter if it's OSX or Linux. It's that same proclivity to install free software (many times games, music players, photo programmes, etc.) which cause malware to be installed on their computers. Gramps and grandma will call you with their problems - you trek on over to their place and see that they have 6 IE toolbars installed, all fighting each other to the point that they can no longer get on the web. Then add on the fact that they probably have admin privs while surfing and it's no wonder that they get viruses, rootkits, spyware, etc. If you need to blow away their OS you'll find that they haven't backed up their files. Install a free anti-virus programme and you're likely to find that they never updated it or ran it once a week.

Nope, it doesn't matter what OS they're running - kids, parents and grand parents will probably have problems and you'll end up on the phone for hours on end.

RE: Brought his own laptop?
By half_duplex on 5/11/2013 11:27:47 PM , Rating: 2
All my dad does is surf, what else do you think he'd be doing?

RE: Brought his own laptop?
By Spuke on 5/10/2013 4:31:55 PM , Rating: 2
Come on now, only idiots and iSheep run proprietary software - which Linux distro do you run?. Excellent decision by NASA to go Open Source.
I think this is an excellent idea also. But I wouldn't consider someone an idiot because they choose to use something else. A lot of proprietary software is excellent. I have yet to see a robust CAD tool (Solidworks or Pro E for example) written for Linux. Choice is great, glad we have it.

RE: Brought his own laptop?
By EricMartello on 5/20/2013 7:59:34 AM , Rating: 2
which Linux distro do you run?

Incidentally, your rhetorical question highlighted the key problem with Linux - every distro seems to think its way of doing things is the best and the community in general has failed to standardize a lot of the key elements that would make linux a bit more usable. The result is a general lack of interoperability between the various distros.

Big fail for pitting a current version of linux against an OS that has long since been obsolete. If we're talking about the computers used for day-to-day tasks, windows would be the optimal choice. Linux fails as a desktop OS yet is pretty solid as a server.

Big fail + for going with Debian over a distro based on least they didn't switch to freebsd.

Good choice.
By drycrust3 on 5/10/2013 4:15:03 PM , Rating: 3
In terms of reception, Debian is often listed as second to only Ubuntu in popularity.

DistroWatch says Debian 6 can be run on 9 different architecture computers (amd64, armel, i386, ia64, mips, mipsel, powerpc, s390, and sparc). As such, the choice of Debian gives a lot of flexibility due to the extra range of architectures covered, not just for existing computers, but also for future installations.
Also there is a range of 10 Desktops offered by Debian (AfterStep, Blackbox, Fluxbox, GNOME, IceWM, KDE, LXDE, Openbox, WMaker, Xfce).

RE: Good choice.
By half_duplex on 5/11/2013 11:35:29 PM , Rating: 2
There are not 10 desktops offered by Debian.

There are 10 desktop projects all trying to get it right, something they havn't been able to do in over 15 years of trying.

I fooled around with KDE back in college. The code is so littered with //TODOs and bad practices that it was about to collapse under its own weight. This is about the time people started hoping over to Gnome... which was also a bugged birds nest.

RE: Good choice.
By Strunf on 5/13/2013 8:19:06 AM , Rating: 2
"There are 10 desktop projects all trying to get it right"
Isn't what MS is trying to do too? and MS has the advantage that they enforce their way whereas the open source actually has to find a compromise between what everyone wants and what will be on the product, and the people that actually do add code to the open source projects do not necessarily want to "dumb" it down, I for one wouldn't spend my free time coding something I don't like.

There is no such thing as a "right desktop" we all have different needs and wishes, not only that but our wishes also change with time, what was ok 5 years may not be ok today, a GUI that doesn't change with time is a dead GUI.

Windows AND Linux alive and well on ISS
By KeithChuvala on 5/10/2013 6:57:52 PM , Rating: 5
Unfortunately, sources like ZDNet have misquoted or misconstrued my interview with the Linux Foundation, and several "news" blogs and such have picked up the inaccuracies they reported. Yes, we do use Linux on ISS and are expanding its use across our systems. However, we have not, nor will we in the foreseeable future, "dump" Windows.

By Amiga500 on 5/11/2013 6:43:11 AM , Rating: 2
Might be worthwhile contacting Jason Mick direct...

25 Percent?
By toyotabedzrock on 5/11/2013 2:04:28 AM , Rating: 2
I could have sworn they claimed the solar panels up there where 12% efficient when they lifted the last set up.

RE: 25 Percent?
By deksman2 on 5/11/2013 3:02:34 PM , Rating: 2
And yet the power hitting the solar panels in Earth's orbit is approximately 22x higher than the one on Earth.

And even with current day commercial solar technology (which is made from inefficient and 'cheap' materials), you would need less than 1% of Earth's land area to power the globe's projected energy requirements for 2050 reliably.

As for NASA's decision to switch over to Open Source... well, I would have to say its good for them.
But NASA probably did it in order to cut costs, and the system requirements are very likely lower than Microsofts (I'm using Win 7 btw - only because I use professional software that doesn't work on Linux) while at the same time excelling at specialized tasks.

I guess Windows 8 is out of the question
By Belard on 5/11/2013 3:16:26 AM , Rating: 1
They should at least give Win7 a try... but with Windows 8, perhaps Microsoft has scared NASA away?

This just in from Yahoo and from analyst.
Its estimated that MS has only sold about 59Million Win8 Licences, which is 70million LESS than Vista.

Net Traffic shows around 4.2% of the web is Win8.

Win8 = FAIL

By Amiga500 on 5/11/2013 6:41:50 AM , Rating: 2
They should at least give Win7 a try...

I disagree. NASA (and organisations like them) should be at the forefront of Linux.

They should look at getting involved with the likes of Scientific linux with CERN and Fermilab... or building off the example of CAElinux.

Just think of the amount of engineering knowledge within NASA that is contained within computer code. Just think of the amount of license fees the likes of NASA pay for their application software!

By Selvakumar Manickam on 5/12/2013 5:10:33 AM , Rating: 2
They can remove the huge machines required to run Windows and replace them with smaller machines enough for Linux to run :)

Smart decision
By faust67 on 5/14/2013 12:24:35 AM , Rating: 2
I read of lot of comments here implying that a user of Linux would not know how to do many things on Linux. This is ridiculous. If I judge by how much I had to help colleagues (or my wife and family) to getting things done on Windows XP or 7, I can claim that Windows is not easier than Linux. The average user is lost if he/she comes across an issue not matter what system he/she uses. If users get things done faster on Windows it is just because they are familiar with the system, not because Windows is better. I can guarantee you that I get things done faster on Linux because this is my everyday system. NASA is not made of stupid people and I am sure they considered carefully their decision to make the shift. If they think that Linux is a viable solution, then it is a viable solution. Yes, Linux lacks some big applications in some fields, but t can fulfill 99% of most needs.

By MelodyRamos49 on 5/12/13, Rating: 0
“We do believe we have a moral responsibility to keep porn off the iPhone.” -- Steve Jobs

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