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Mobile integratable IP cores look to one up Tegra K1's Geforce-product

What does Apple, Inc.'s (AAPL) iPhone 5S A7 SoC and Samsung Electronics Comp., Ltd.'s (KRX:005930) Galaxy S4 Exynos have in common?  Well, for starters they both have chips made in Samsung fabs.  But another commonality (well, in the case of the International edition of the GS4) is that both have dies that include PowerVR GPUs by Imagination Technologies Group Plc (LON:IMG).

This week at the 2014 Consumer Electronics Show (CES 2014) in Las Vegas, Nevada, Imagination Tech. unveiled not one, but two new series of GPUs.  Competition has grown increasingly tight for the IP (intellectual property) core designer, based out of Hertfordshire and Kings Langley, UK.  Many of these rivals are old; others are recent allies turned nemesis.

Before we dive into the new family of releases codenamed "Rogue" -- the PowerVR SGX 6XE Series (coming), PowerVR Series6 (currently on the market), and PowerVR Series6 XT (coming), let's take a peek back at Imagination Tech's history.

I. The Beginning

The late 1980s and early 1990s were the roaring days of a new kind of a chip, the graphics processing unit.  Passions ran high.  Companies rose and fell.  But a few remained as the 2000s began to roll by.

This fascinating time in the market is well-summarized by TechSpot's Graham Singer in his piece from early this year "The History of the Modern Graphics Processor".  "From Voodoo to GeForce: The Awesome History of 3D Graphics", an absolute masterpiece on the topic by Paul Lilly, also offers yet more good insight.
Voodoo
Few graphics companies survived the turbulent 90s. [Image Source: Wikimedia Commons]

But while these histories may fill some tech geeks with nostalgia, they largely remain irrelevant.

Some companies like Silicon Integrated Systems (SiS) Corp. (TPE:2363) and Dorval, Canada based Matrox quietly rode off into the sunset. 

Others were gobbled up by larger firms -- including Number Nine Visual Technology Corp. (sold to S3 Graphics in 1999), S3 Graphics (acquired by HTC Corp. (TPE:2498) in 2011, used for legal defense), 3dfx Interactive (acquired by NVIDIA Corp. (NVDA) in Oct. 2002, merged into Geforce tech pool), Rendition (acquired by Micron Technology, Inc. (MU) in 1998 but was killed by delays), 3D Labs (original a Creative Technology Ltd. (SGX:C76) subsidiary, rebranded as ZiiLabs and then purchased by Intel Corp. (INTC) in 2000), Trident Microsystems (bought by XGI Technologies in 2003, which was bought by SiS in 2006), and ATI technologies (acquired by Advanced Micro Devices Inc. (AMD) in mid-2006).

Of the many companies arguably only the legacies of 3dfx (via NVIDIA), Trident (via Intel), and ATI (via AMD) continue live on in the graphics industry.  But actually, there's one more -- Imagination Technologies.  The story of Imagination Technologies' evolution from 90s GPU maker to top mobile core designer is perhaps the most unique outcome among the graphics firms of the 90s.

II. First There was Video Logic

Imagination Tech. was founded as VideoLogic in 1985.  In the late 1980s and early 1990s it designed graphics processing chips for traditional PCs competing with the likes of U.S.-based NVIDIA and Canada's ATI Technologies.  Decent early showings attracted the interest of Japan's Renesas Electronics Corp. (TYO:6723).

apocalypse 5D
Before mobile GPUs Imagination Tech was producing gems like "Apocalypse 5D" as VideoLogic. [Image Source: Tweak3D]

PowerVR's novel innovation was its pioneering of Z-buffer testing, which cut down on redundant pixel draws to a single screen site, hence reducing memory bandwidth.

At the turn of the century Imagination Tech. was profitable, but its leaders were hungry for more challenges.  In particular Sir Hossein Yassaie, who joined Imagination Tech. in 1992 and became CEO in 1998, felt the console market (who NEC primarily sold chips to) was too volatile.  In 1999, when VideoLogic was renamed Imagination Technologies he commented:

We are positioning the company to take full advantage of the digital and Internet era which provides us with a host of emerging opportunities for our technology.

The press release also states:

The new name reflects the changed emphasis of the Group on developing and licensing innovative technologies for the human/computer interface. The Group now derives the majority of its revenues through the licensing of its patented technologies across a range of platforms including arcade systems, videogame consoles, PCs and set-top-boxes. Future target platforms will include mobile computers and home network devices.

Indeed, mobile would prove a critical target as desktop and console GPU opportunities evaporated.  At the time Imagination Tech.'s biggest contract to date was the Sega Dreamcast GPU.  But by 2000 it was already proving a tremendous disappointment, beginning to flop.

Dreamcast
The Sega Dreamcast was powered by PowerVR.

Still, Imagination Tech. also had a thriving GPU project with STMicroelectronics N.V. (EPA:STM) (Sir Yassaie's former employer pre-1992).  The pair produced the Kyro II desktop GPU, which was supported by cardmaker Hercules.  Early releases like the 3D Prophet 4500 impressed.  AnandTech wrote that year, "The performance of the Kyro II based 3D Prophet 4500 is nothing short of stunning given its price: a mere $149.99."

Kyro II
The 3D Prophet 4500 w/ Kyro II shows off at CeBit 2001
[Image Source: Overclockers Club Online]

But much like the Dreamcast had a fatal flaw (Sega), the Kyro II's allure soon faded as transform and lighting (T&L) optimization took hold, favoring NVIDIA and ATI's rival solutions (the highly efficient Kyro II lacked T&L a key flaw).  Kyro 3 may be remembered as potentially the best GPU to never see the light of day; it included T&L and would likely have blew away ATI and NVIDIA's wares, had it launched (given the base rendering performance of the last generation).  But alas, STMicro's finances were in dire straits and it killed the promising chip.

Having not one, but two major products flop would have meant death to most companies.  But Imagination Technologies' odd strategy of licensing and mobile 3D now appeared brilliant as the chipmaker weathered a rocky 2001.

The Kyro 3 died, Imagination Tech. did not.  It was saved, in part, by a deal it had signed with ARM Holdings plc (LON:ARM), a fellow UK chipmaker, who had come to dominate the fast-growing mobile phone market.  That deal would prove the key to the company's future market direction.

III. A New Era -- The PowerVR Series MBX

Imagination Tech.'s first mobile hit came around the middle of the last decade with the MBX GPU cores.  From Intel to Texas Instruments (TI) Inc.'s (TXN), Imagination Tech. would come to find many willing partners and would be featured in many early smartphones and PDAs.  But it was not until the launch of the Apple iPhone in 2007 that attention began to focus on the largely unrecognized 90s graphics refugee in the mobile space.

PowerVR MBX Family (dominant from 2005-2009)

PowerVR MBX
  • Single GPU core
  • Single pipeline, texture mapping unit (TMU)
  • (originally) 130 nm
  • Announced in Feb. 2001
  • Imagination Tech's first major mobile hit
  • Direct X 7
  • OpenGL 1.1
  • MBX Lite 3D
  • Tuned for power consumption
  • Bundled into the Intel Corp. (INTC) 2700G mobile coprocessor

                Intel 2700
  • Used in the Samsung S5L8900

    iPhone first gen
                       [Image Source: ArsTechnica]
  • MBX 3D
  • More powerful
  • Used in TI OMAP 2430

IV. Multi-core GPUs Introduced With the Series 5, Series 5XT

With mobile gaming shifting towards the smartphone, Imagination Tech. was experiencing booming sales and strong demand for more powerful GPUs.  It responded with the Series 5 and a 5XT, which includes multi-core GPUs for the first time.

PowerVR Series 5 (dominant from 2009-Present)

PowerVR SGX 5 Series implementation
  • Single GPU core
  • One or more pipelines, TMUs
  • SGX 520/530
    • Announced July 2005
    • 1 pipe (520) or 2 pipes (530) / 1 TMU
    • 200 MHz
    • OpenGL ES 2.0
    • Used in Texas Instruments OMAP 3420/3430

      OMAP 3
  • SGX 535
  • SGX 540
  • SGX545
    • Announced Jan. 2010
    • 45 or 65 nm
    • 4 pipes
    • 2 TMUs
    • 200 MHz
    • Not widely adopted

PowerVR Series 5XT (dominant from 2009-Present)
  • Multiple GPU cores
  • Multiple pipelines, TMUs per core
  • 200 MHz (base)
  • SGX543
    • Announced CES 2009 (January)
    • 32 nm
    • MP2 (2 GPU cores), MP4 (4 GPU cores)
    • 4 pipes / 2 TMUs per core
    • Overclocked up to 250 MHz in the wild
    • Apple A5 (MP2)
    • iPad 2
    • iPhone 4S
    • Apple A5X (MP4)
    • iPad 3
    • Apple A6 (MP3)
    • iPhone 5
  • SGX544
  • Announced June 2010
  • 32 nm
  • MP2 (2 GPU cores), MP4 (4 GPU cores)
  • 4 pipes / 2 TMUs per core
  • Overclocked up to 533 MHz in the wild
  • Samsung Exynos 5 Octa
  • Galaxy S4 (int'l model)
  • SGX554
  • Announced Dec. 2010
  • 32 nm
  • MP2 (2 GPU cores), MP4 (4 GPU cores)
  • 4 pipes / 2 TMUs per core
  • Overclocked up to 280 MHz in the wild
  • Apple A6X
  • iPad (4th Generation)

V. Competition Heats Up

For Imagination Tech., the current mobile market represents both unprecedented opportunity, but also fresh competition.  Qualcomm's Adreno unit (purchased from the spinoff of ATI's mobile business -- "adreno" is an anagram of "radeon") is the biggest smartphone volume competitor to PowerVR, given its widespread Android adoption.

NVIDIA's Tegra SoC line -- which pack mobile GeForce CUDA cores -- is also a threat, although it's been stymied by somewhat weak power performance.  And then there's ARM Holdings, who is now competing against its former partner with Mali.  Last, but not least there's Intel, who like ARM Holdings has gone from a partner of Imagination Tech. to a rival.  With next generation's mobile Iris variants manufactured on a 14 nanometer node, Intel may start to move greater volumes and pose a threat to PowerVR.

But all signs point to a relatively good season for Imagination Tech.

VI. PowerVR Series6 XE, Series6, and Series6 XT

While the PowerVR 5 Series isn't going anywhere and will continue to move product for a few more years, this year will be PowerVR Series 6 year for volume growth.

The Series 6 has three main lines -- the low-end (power efficiency) PowerVR Series6 XE, the mid-range PowerVR Series6 (balance), and the high-end PowerVR Series6 XT (performance).

The below roadmap highlights its chip numbering for ther Series 6XE and Series 6XT product.

PowerVR 6XT "Rogue" roadmap

So far there's a couple chips in the wild with PowerVR Series 6 (XE) cores.

Among these is the Apple A7 SoC which uses an MP4 configuration of the G6430, clocked at 200 MHz.  The G6430 features 64 FP32 operations per "cluster".  With 4 clusters -- 256 total FP32 ops are possible at once.  This is competitive with NVIDA's new K1, which offers 192 cores.  The G6430 also supports large 4096x4096 textures and advanced tile-based deferred rendering (TBDR), a more advanced version of the Z-buffering that Imagination tech is famous for.

It's also important to note that the Power Series 5/5XT model's pipeline-based architecture -- the traditional PowerVR design -- has been replaced at last with unified shader cores (USCs).  In this regard Imagination Tech. has at last travelled the same path as AMD and NVIDIA before it.

The iPhone 5S has already proven blazing fast graphically in AnandTech's benchmarks.

It's possible we could see Apple or Samusng push out a PowerVR 6XT chip (such as the SGX6450 or SGX6650) later this year.  It's also possible Apple and others will simply bump higher up the mainline PowerVR 6 Series, moving to the SGX6630.

MediaTek Inc. (TPE:2454) has an octacore CPU (big.LITTLE; 4x Cortex-A15, 4x Cortex-A7) aimed at Android OEMs which packs a G6200 GPU rumored to be in a quad-core (MP4) configuration. 

MediaTek MT8135

It's expected that we'll see a Snapdragon chips with the PowerVR 6 series (the Snapdragon 410, 610, and 810) as well later in H1.

PowerVR Series 6XE

We'll also likely see a number of budget PowerVR 6XE series design pop up.  The PowerVR 6XE series carries a leaner set of helper coprocessors, but has the same overall USC/TBDR basis as the PowerVR Series 6 and Series 6XT.  It notably offers options with only one processor cluster (MP1), versus Series6 and Series6 XT, which feature a minium of two (MP2) processor clusters.

Source: Imagination Tech. [press release]



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Nice historical re-cap.
By fteoath64 on 1/9/2014 5:34:15 AM , Rating: 2
Good to see the Rogue series 6 competing with the rest of the top gpu players for 2014. Even a pretty lousy low-named brand Vivante is coming up with their 6400 and 7000 series. All of which are faster than Tegra 4 Geforce 72 core gpu. Of course with the Logan demo before, naby are keep to see the K1 and its power consumption figures. Good days ahead while Arm 64bit ramps up into the mainstream this year.
Intel must be shaking in their boots like crazy since BT has been eclipsed at launch and forced to play in the mid to low end parts ....




RE: Nice historical re-cap.
By lagomorpha on 1/9/2014 11:51:04 AM , Rating: 2
I'd like to see what low-end parts are shipping with Bay Trail. The only low-end tablets I've seen with Atoms have been Cloverview at $150. Bay Trail seems to be ending up in $300+ Windows 8.1 tablets which is does fine in.

Intel might not have the fastest GPU in the segment, but there aren't any ARM tablet CPUs that come close to BT's performance and for most tasks on a tablet that's more important.

It looks like the phone version of BT has been cancelled but if the 14nm phone version of Airmont has similar performance to the tablet version of Silvermont Intel shouldn't have much to worry about.


RE: Nice historical re-cap.
By TakinYourPoints on 1/9/2014 10:24:04 PM , Rating: 2
quote:
Intel might not have the fastest GPU in the segment, but there aren't any ARM tablet CPUs that come close to BT's performance and for most tasks on a tablet that's more important.


According to Anandtech, the A7 in the iPhone 5S is comparable to Bay Trail, and the iPad Air is clocked a bit higher than that.

http://www.anandtech.com/show/7335/the-iphone-5s-r...
http://www.anandtech.com/show/7335/the-iphone-5s-r...

quote:
Bay Trail's performance crown lasted all of a week, and even less than that if you count when we actually ran this benchmark. The dual-core A7 is now the fastest SoC we've tested under SunSpider, even outpacing Qualcomm's Snapdragon 800 and ARM's Cortex A15. Apple doesn't quite hit the 2x increase in CPU performance here, but it's very close at a 75% perf increase compared to the iPhone 5.


RE: Nice historical re-cap.
By lagomorpha on 1/10/2014 9:27:00 AM , Rating: 2
Not really apples to apples - it's no secret that Android isn't as lightweight as iOS which is why even Apple's A6 is beating many of the quad-core A15s.

If you wanted a fair comparison you'd have to figure out how to install Android on Apple's A7 so that the benchmarks are run on the same platform because BT isn't going to be competing with Apple's A7 it's going to be competing with other CPUs running Android (and also Windows 8.1 tablets).

Even then, BT is 26% faster than A7 in Kraken and under IE11 BT was 26.2% faster in Sunspider.

Also comparison to the iPad Air isn't really equivalent - once you start talking about 10" tablets over $500 you're getting into ULV Haswell territory and Haswell is in an entirely different league.


RE: Nice historical re-cap.
By retrospooty on 1/10/2014 11:12:44 AM , Rating: 2
To be fair if testing CPU to CPU sure, but you don't buy a CPU you buy a phone. So in reality you test platform vs platform. And at that the Apples are a tad bit faster in benchmarks for whatever that is worth. That is due to a few things... Android is heavier - 1 part of that is simply supported features. Android supports almost every feature under the sun and Apple supports very few. Apple also has a fully integrated ecosystem so they can (and do) spend alot of time optimizing everything between their chip. OS, and apps. Its a choice between tighter integration and a far better feature set and far more hardware options.

As it is the Apple platform is a bit faster, but the difference is becoming like high end PC's - You cant tell as both as plenty fast. It's a bit like saying your Ferrari is faster than my Lamborghini. Well wowee howdy for you man!


RE: Nice historical re-cap.
By TakinYourPoints on 1/10/2014 6:54:29 PM , Rating: 2
Supporting more features has a bit less to do with things than general inefficiency all around. Basic things like smoothness and battery life are things Google has been addressing for years.

One problem re: apps is running code through virtual machines versus native apps running in Objective-C. Carmack talked about how that alone puts a ceiling on performance.

Optimizing for a limited set of hardware is another obvious advantage on the iOS side. High end Android hardware makes up for it by running things at higher clock speeds, which is a drain on battery life so it requires a bigger battery, which requires all high end devices to be 5" or bigger, and so on.

You're absolutely correct that entire platforms need to be looked at. It doesn't make sense to look at hardware by itself and just ignoring the operating system, especially in embedded systems.


RE: Nice historical re-cap.
By retrospooty on 1/11/2014 7:46:52 AM , Rating: 2
Yup... I mean if you are really looking to just test CPU vs CPU sure, but you cant buy a mobile CPU and stick it anywhere so its really a moot point for mobile. Even if you had someone do a hackjob and load Android on an iPhone (its been done) or IOS on an Android phone its still not optimized and buggy as hell and doesn't give you a CPU vs CPU test anyhow. You are testing a combo of the CPU and its platform period and that is your choice on what to buy. Benchmarking is getting pointless anyhow. It's not about how many [insertapp]marks you get it's about your experience and your needs and what you get out of it.


RE: Nice historical re-cap.
By TakinYourPoints on 1/10/2014 6:46:30 PM , Rating: 2
All I was responding to was "but there aren't any ARM tablet CPUs that come close to BT's performance", which clearly isn't true.

Everything else has to do with practical performance. You aren't benchmarking hardware alone, the operating system and complete platform also matter.


RE: Nice historical re-cap.
By lagomorpha on 1/11/2014 9:44:11 AM , Rating: 2
I guess that depends on whether or not you consider "completes tasks 26% faster despite being on a less optimized platform" a significant performance difference. Under Android the fastest CPU is Bay Trail and it does this by no small margin. Will the quad-core A57s be competitive when they are available? Maybe, but it is doubtful they will be faster.

Comparing Apple to Android is not a real comparison - yes iOS runs faster for a number of reasons but there are also many drawbacks and many of us flat out refuse to use Apple products.


RE: Nice historical re-cap.
By web2dot0 on 1/11/2014 11:07:28 PM , Rating: 2
So if your starting off point is "I refuse to use Apple products". Then why bother review?

There's only one option to choose from, so I guess you'll have to take whatever Android offers.

Just accept it. iPhone 5S is freaking fast. I upgraded my iPhone 4 to 5S and it's like night and day.

It is a real comparison to compare Apple vs Android. How else can someone make a decision between choosing iOS and Android? People need information to make choices. Let people decide what they want, not dictated by what you believe is better.


so...
By Captain Awesome on 1/8/2014 1:29:43 PM , Rating: 3
How many frames per second will this give me in Angry Birds?




RE: so...
By JasonMick (blog) on 1/8/2014 1:38:04 PM , Rating: 2
quote:
How many frames per second will this give me in Angry Birds?
Jokes aside, I'm excited about the rumors of Starcraft 3 running on Android tablets... While hardcore players will cry could and hug their keyboards, for casual players like myself that didn't have the time to make the diamond league with SC2, I expect touch to be great fun. Casual rts play was kind of built for touch screens. :)


RE: so...
By TakinYourPoints on 1/8/2014 10:38:05 PM , Rating: 3
Where did you hear those rumors? The only tablet game Blizzard is working on is Hearthstone for the iPad, and that makes sense because card games work great on tablets. BTW, I played a beta of the iPad version over the holidays, it is awesome.

The Starcraft team is currently working on Heroes Of The Storm and there is no word yet on progress with the Protoss expansion.

Either way, an RTS like Starcraft requires a mouse and keyboard even more than an FPS does. FPS are barely passable with a gamepad but tens of millions of people think its ok. I do not, but whatever, it "almost" works and people still have fun with it. Playing SC2 is nigh impossible without a mouse and keyboard unless you just accept that you're going to be low bronze league and won't be able to macro or micro. It uses half the keyboard and more inputs per minute than any other game.

Even Valve who are pushing the Steam controller has flat out said that it does not work well for DOTA 2, their bread and butter.

Feel free to try either with Splashtop or any other RDP though, its pretty bad for anything other than watching replays. :)

There is exactly one RTS that's worked well on tablets, and that's Autumn Dynasty: https://itunes.apple.com/app/id522003675

It was built from the ground up for tablets. A straight port of a desktop RTS flat out would not work. Turn based games like Civ Rev are good though, ditto board games like Lords Of Waterdeep and tactics games like Frozen Synapse. Anything as insanely fast as Starcraft, no, not without a totally discrete ground-up fork from the desktop app.

DIABLO though, that could work. :)

/taptaptap


RE: so...
By lagomorpha on 1/9/2014 9:14:28 AM , Rating: 2
I suppose you could always connect a bluetooth mouse/keyboard to your tablet for when you want to play games. Though at that point you may as well get a laptop.


RE: so...
By TakinYourPoints on 1/9/2014 7:56:28 PM , Rating: 3
Yup, at which point a tablet-only port is useless.


RE: so...
By OnyxNite on 1/8/2014 1:46:15 PM , Rating: 2
You could always mirror phone screen on your big screen TV and grab a bluetooth controller. In a year or so the high end smartphones will provide a comparable experience to an Xbox 360 or PS3. Sure they aren't going to match the PS4 or Xbone soon but you'll probably already be buying that latest superphone so for many it will be "good enough".


RE: so...
By SpartanJet on 1/8/2014 3:06:37 PM , Rating: 3
The better question is how many micro transactions can be made per second since that is the main focus of apps these days, not entertainment.


This is great, but...
By scrapsma54 on 1/8/2014 1:39:16 PM , Rating: 1
Nvidia seems to have more developers working on THD titles I actually like to play rather than the other garbage that floats around on android market that doesn't even utilize the true potential of the graphics.




RE: This is great, but...
By shabby on 1/8/2014 6:06:08 PM , Rating: 4
Nvidia is simply throwing money at them, unfortunately without on-die lte barely any phones have nvidia gpu's. Nvidia is throwing money at the wrong people.


RE: This is great, but...
By scrapsma54 on 1/9/2014 11:18:22 AM , Rating: 2
Which I am fine with. These High performance Cpus were made more for tablets than anything else really. Putting a Huge SOC on a cellphone doesn't mean it is going to be utilized fully.


RE: This is great, but...
By TakinYourPoints on 1/9/2014 10:27:24 PM , Rating: 2
Biggest benefit is actually for the Shield. That's a nice and fairly affordable piece of kit, and it comes with a gamepad attached.


Yay Kyro!
By Motoman on 1/8/2014 4:21:02 PM , Rating: 3
I fondly remember playing with the Kyro II back in the day. Right when AMD first made their Athlon MP chip (the first one capable of being run in multi-CPU configurations) I built a dual-CPU machine with 2 of those bad boys, and spent an insane amount of money on 4 256Mb RAM sticks that I bought directly from Mushkin. Having 1Gb of RAM at the time was ridiculous...in this era if you had 256Mb total you were ahead of the curve. Anyway...I built that thing for no real reason other than I could...

...and then I heard about the multi-CPU scaling in the Kyro II - something other video cards of the day really didn't do. I plopped in a Kyro II video card and proceeded to do some benchmarking with a Quake3 engine loop...one of the few engines in the day that could run over more than one CPU (or core, in modern terms). There was literally a switch you'd flip someplace to turn on the multithreading.

Anyway, that little Kyro II darn-near doubled it's frame rate when I turned on multi-CPU support. It was crazy...

...and then the product line died. :(




RE: Yay Kyro!
By FITCamaro on 1/8/2014 7:23:34 PM , Rating: 2
I have a dual 1.2 GHz Tualatin P3 system with 1.25GB of SD-RAM sitting in my closet.


RE: Yay Kyro!
By bug77 on 1/10/2014 10:17:43 AM , Rating: 2
I remember wishing I could afford one. I never did.


Adreno is NOT by Samsung
By OnyxNite on 1/8/2014 1:42:17 PM , Rating: 3
Adreno is Qualcomm's GPU design. Samsung thus far does not design their own architecture. They design chips by licensing architectures. Their Exynos chips license ARM for CPU and either ARM Mali or Imagination Technolgies PowerVR for GPU. Otherwise they just buy Snapdragon chips from Qualcomm and put them in their products (typically when they want LTE support).




RE: Adreno is NOT by Samsung
By ICBM on 1/8/2014 8:55:23 PM , Rating: 3
I believe you are correct, Qualcomm bought the Adreno. Not samsung.

What I would love is to see them bring this back to the desktop. A 3rd serious player in the add in card market would be awesome.


Flawed
By Argon18 on 1/13/2014 12:37:08 PM , Rating: 2
This "History" is flawed for several reasons. A few glaring omissions. No mention at all of Cirrus Logic? Evans and Sutherland? SGI? These were all pioneers in the graphics acceleration field, and dominated the market from the 80's well into the 90's.

Or is this article only about low-end peecee tinker toys?




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